Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Reactive Compensation in Long Lines Through the Joint Effect of Transformer Tap and Shunt Compensation: a Parametric Plane Study

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This paper investigates the steady state performance of long line with reactive compensation provided through transformer tap control on one side and shunt compensation provided on the other side. Constant voltage contours in the parametric plane are obtained. Also the voltage profile over the line together with the flatness index is determined. Results of case studies are presented and analyzed. This study can make a foundation to build up an expert system through which the voltage at the load end can be controlled by suitably designed parameters of both the compensators.
Copyright © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Joint Control; Reactive Compensation; Transmission Line; Flat Voltage Profile; Expert System

Full Text:



Bridenbaugh, C.J.; DiMascio, D.A.; D'Aquila, R. “Voltage control improvement through capacitor and transformer tap optimization”IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 1992, pp 222-227.

Pablo Frıas, Tomas Gomez, David Soler, "Voltage Control and Reactive Power Support in the Spanish Transmission Network", IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, MELECON 2006, pp. 916 - 919.

C. C. Liu and K. Tomsovic, "An expert System Assisting Decision-Making of Reactive Power/Voltage Control", IEEE, vol. PWRS-1, no. 3, pp.195 -201 1986

S.J.Cheng, O.P.Malik and G.S.Hope, “An Expert System for Voltage and Reactive Power Control of a Power System”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.3, No.4, November 1988, pp. 1449-1455

J.L. Martinez Ramos et al., “A Hybrid Tool to Assist the Operator in Reactive Power/Voltage Control and Optimization”, IEEE Trans. on PWRS, Vol. 10, No. 2, May 1995, pp. 760-768

Taylor, G.A., Rashidinejad, M., Song, Y.-H. ; Irving, M.R., Bradley, M.E.; Williams, T.G. “Algorithmic techniques for transition-optimised voltage and reactive power control”, International Conference on Power System Technology Proceedings, PowerCon 2002, IEEE-PES/CSEE, Kunming, China, Volume: 3, pp. 1660 – 1664

Bansilal D. Thukaram; K. Parthasarathy, “An Expert System for Voltage Control in a Power System Network”, International Conference on Energy Management and Power Delivery, Proceedings of EMPD’95, 1995, pp 364-369.

Pyone Lai Swe, WannaSwe and KyawMyo Lin, “Effects of Tap Changing Transformer and Shunt Capacitor on Voltage Stability Enhancement of Transmission Networks”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 51,2011, pp 555-558.

John J. Grainger and William D. Stevenson, Power System Analysis (Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Srinivasa Rao N.L., Govinda Rao G., Sivanagaraju S., "Beta (phase constant) compensation for flat voltage profile in a transmission line", International Journal of Electrical Power Systems Research (EPSR, ELSEVIER), Volume 104, November 2013, pp. 35–41

Baum, W.U.; Frederick, W.A., “A Method of Applying Switched and Fixed Capacitors for Voltage Control”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Volume: 84, Issue 1, 1965, pp 42-48.

Edward W. Kimbark, “A New Look at Shunt Compensation”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, No.1, January 1983, pp 212-218.

Rao, N.L.S., Govinda Rao, G., Sivanagaraju, S., An extension to the theory of the transmission lines, (2012) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 5 (5), pp. 2348-2354.

Timothy J. E. Miller, Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems (Wiley-India Edition, 2010).

HadiSaadat, Power System Analysis(Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2010).

P. Kundur,Power System Stability and Control, (McGraw-Hill, New York. 1994, ).

G. Anderson et al., “Causes of 2003 Major Grid Blackouts in North America and Europe, and Recommended Means to Improve System Dynamic Performance”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.20, no.4, Nov 2005, pp. 1922-1928.

Mohamed Mostafa Saied,“Optimal Long Line Series Compensation”,IEEETransactions on Power Systems, Vol. PWRD-1, No. 2, April 1986, pp 248-253.

Dixon, J., Moran, L., Rodriguez, J., Domke, R., "Reactive Power Compensation Technologies: State-of-the-Art Review",proceedings of the IEEE (Volume:93 , Issue: 12 ), Dec. 2005, pp 2144 – 2164.

N.J.Balu, R.Adapa, G. Cauley , M. Lauby and D.J. Maratukulam "Review of Expert Systems in Bulk Power System Planning and Operation", Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.80, no.5, 1992, pp.727 -731.

Shakeri, J., Abbasi, A.H., Shayegani, A.A., Mohseni, H., A new method for partial discharge localization using multi-conductor transmission line model in transformer winding, (2009) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 4 (3), pp. 470-476.

Porkar, S., Poure, P., Abbaspour-Tehrani-fard, A., Saadate, S., Distributed generation planning for losses, voltage profile, line congestion and total system cost improvement, (2009) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 4 (3), pp. 434-440.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize