### On Robust Automatic Generation Control Using Meta-Heuristics Search Based PID Design

^{(*)}

*Corresponding author*

**DOI's assignment:**

*the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!*

**Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)**

#### Abstract

In this paper, a certain class of meta-heuristics search algorithms is fused with the simple feedback linear control theory to offer a fairly new solution for single area Automatic Generation Control system in a robust manner. The designed optimal PID controller is used to regulate the Load Frequency in reheat steam turbine single-area power system. The goal of the design is to minimize the demand side variation effect while improving the transient performance of the system frequency. Using diverse simulation tests - where different kind variations in load demand and parameters change are applied - the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed controller are illustrated. The proposed design procedure extends previous results by considering both turbine generation rate constraint and governor dead band inherent nonlinearities simultaneously. The main contribution of this paper is that a simple and straightforward optimal controller scheme that guarantees not only the stability of the single area AGC system frequency but also ensure the robustness of the controller structure against system parameters, operating point and load variations is obtained. *Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.*

#### Keywords

#### Full Text:

PDF#### References

W. C. Chan and Y. Y. Hsu, “Automatic generation control of interconnected power system using variable structure controllers”, Proc. IEE Part C, vol. 128, No. 5, 1981,pp. 269279

C. T. Pan and C. M. Liaw, An Adaptive Controller for Power System and Load Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1980, pp. 122–128.

Al-hamouz A Z,Abdel Magid Y L, “Variable structure load frequency controller for multiarea interconnected power systems”, Int.J.Electric Power Energy System, 1993,15(4):293~300.

Z.M.Al-Hamouz and H.N.Al-Duwaish, “A New Load Frequency Variable Structure Controller Using Genetic Algorithms”, Electric Power Systems Research Vol.55, 2000,Pages:1~6.

A. Bensenouci, A. M. Abdel Ghany, "Step-Wise Optimum Adaptive Variable-Structure Load-Frequency Control Design Using Simulated Annealing", Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE'07, Vigo, Spain, June 4-7, 2007, pp. 318-323.

M. S. Yousuf, H. N. Al-Duwaish and Z. M. Al-Hamouz, “PSO Based nonlinear Predictive Control of Single Area Load Frequency Control”, IFAC Conference on Control Applications of Optimisation, IFAC-CAO-2009, Agora, Finland, May 6-8, 2009.

Xiangjie Liu , Xiaolei Zhan and Dianwei Qian, “Load Frequency Control considering Generation Rate Constraints”, Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation July 6-9 2010, Jinan, China,pp.1398:1401

Kalyan Chatterjee, “PI Controller for Automatic Generation Control Based on Performance Indices”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 75, 2011, pp. 321-328.

Bensenouci, A., Besheer, H., Voltage and power regulation for a sample power system using heuristics population search based PID design, (2012) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 5 (6), pp. 737-748.

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund, “Revisiting the Ziegler–Nichols step response method for PID control”, Journal of Process Control, No. 14, 2004, pp. 635–650.

Demiroren A., Zeynelgil H.L. and Sengor N.S.,“ Automatic Generation Control Using ANN Technique for Multi-Area Power System with SMES Units” Journal of Electric Power Components and Systems, Vol. 32, No.2, 2004, pp.193-213.

Kocaarslan Ilhan and Cam Ertugrul, “Fuzzy logic controller in interconnected electrical power systems for load-frequency control International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 542-549, October 2005.

C.Ertugrul and I.Kocaarslan, “A fuzzy gain scheduling PI controller application for an interconnected electrical power system.Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 73, pp 267-274, 2005.

Y. Wang, R. Zhou, and C. Wen, “Robust Load Frequency Controller Design for Power Systems”, IEE Proceedings-C., Vol. 140, No. 1 , 1993, pp. 11–16.

M. Aghdaie and M. Rashidi, “Robust and Adaptive Load Frequency Control of Multiarea Power Systems with system parametric uncertainties via TDMLP, WSEAS Transactions on Systems, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2004, pp. 1001–1008.

A. Visioli, “Tuning PID controllers with fuzzy logic,” IEE Proc. Control Theory and Applications, Vol. 148, No. 1, pp. 1-8, 2001.

H. Boubertakh, M. Tadjine, P.-Y. Glorennec, S. Labiod, Comparison between Fuzzy PI, PD and PID Controllers and Classical PI, PD and PID Controllers, (2008) Internation Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 1 (4), pp. 413-421.

A.H.Besheer, “Tuning method for PID control scheme: A blended ant system optimization technique with Takagi Sugeno fuzzy system,” ICFC 2010 - International Conference on Fuzzy Computation, Valencia, Spain 24-26 October, 2010, pp. 113-119.

A.H.Besheer and T. M. Abdo, M. M. Halouda “Regulation for Wind Generation System Using Ant system Based Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy PID”, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZIEEE’11) June 27-30, 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 2350-2357.

A.H.Besheer, "Wind Driven Induction Generator Regulation Using Ant system Approach to Takagi Sugeno Fuzzy PID Control", WSEAS Transaction on Systems and Control, Issue 12, Vol.6, pp.427-439, December 2011.

A.H.Besheer, and M.Adly, “Ant Colony System Based PI Maximum Power Point Tracking for Stand Alone Photovoltaic System”, IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (IEEE-ICIT12), March 19-21, 2012, Athens, Greece, pp. 704-709.

M.Adly, A.H.Besheer, "A meta-heuristics search algorithm as a solution for energy transfer maximization in stand-alone photovoltaic systems", Elsevier Electrical Power and energy Systems, Vol.51, 2013, pp.243-255.

H.L. Zeynelgil, A. Demiroren, N.S. Sengor, "Load Frequency Control for Power System with Reheat Steam Turbine and Governor Deadband Non-linearity by Using Neural Network Controller," ETEP , Vol. 12, No. 3, May/June 2002.

K.J. Astrom, T. Hagglund, C.C. Zhang, and W.K. Ho, Automatic tuning and Adaptation for PID controllers –A survey, IFAC Journal Control Eng. Practice , Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 699-714, 1993.

DORIGO M, V. Maniezzo and A. Colorni, “Ant system optimization by a colony of cooperating agents”, IEEE Transaction on Systems Man and cybernetics – part B, 26 (1), 1996, pp. 29-41.

Guanzheng Tan, Qingdong Zeng, Shengjun He and Guangchao, “Adaptive and robust design for PID controller based on ant system algorithm”, Advances in Natural Computation, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2005, Volume 3612/2005, 915-924, DOI: 10.1007/11539902_113 .

K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice- Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J, U.S.A, 1990.

Gatto, G., Marongiu, I., Meo, S., Perfetto, A., Serpi, A., Predictive control of brushless DC motor drive providing minimum joule losses and torque ripple free commutation, (2011) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 4 (4), pp. 1500-1505.

S. Meo, A. Perfetto, A Predictive Control of a DPWM Quasi Resonant Inverter Feeding Induction Motors, (2012) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 5 (2), pp. 1122-1127.

Anil Kumar, T., Venkata Ramana, N., Design of sliding mode observer based optimal controller for load frequency control in multi area deregulated thermal system connected with HVDC link, (2013) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 6 (2), pp. 543-553.

Jalilzadeh, S., Azari, M., A Novel approach for PID designing for Load Frequency Control system, (2012) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 5 (3), pp. 1159-1164.

Vijaya Chandrakala, K.R.M., Balamurugan, S., Sankaranarayanan, K., Genetic algorithm tuned optimal variable structure system controller for enhanced load frequency control, (2012) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 7 (2), pp. 4105-4112.

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com**Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize**