Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Scratch Behaviour of Steels: Description of the Effect of Work Hardening

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


The scratch behaviour of three kind of steels witch one was work-hardened by uniaxial tensile tests until a three different values of deformation. In order to get rid of the indenter geometry effect, the representative deformation and the rheological factor X were used. To compare the results with analytical models, the hardness ratio was presented in function of the attack angle. In the aim of studying the effect of work hardening on the scratch behaviour of C45 steel, numerical simulations using ABAQUS/Explicit code were carried out for two cases of work-hardening. Furthermore, an examination by scanning electronic microscopy and optical interferometer of the ridges were performed. We show that, for steels slightly work-hardened, the shape ratio versus the factor X increase with a logarithmic law before being stabilized, towards a value of about 2.2 for X > 60. Lower values are observed for C45 steel with the annealed state. For attack angles between 0 and 30° the ratio of the normal hardness, Hn, with the indentation hardness, H, of these steels remains close to 1, except for C45 steel in the annealed state where for the weak ones (, Hn/H  ~1.6. The ratio of the tangential hardness to the normal hardness is largely greater than 1 and decreases for the steels studied to reach 1,6 – 1,9. The apparent friction coefficient will be decomposed to the sum of three times the representative deformation plus the adhesive friction coefficient. The model developed made it possible to interpret the phenomena of microcutting observed on the scratch of strongly work-hardened C45 steel.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Scratch Test; Steels; Hardness; Friction; Finite Elements; Damage

Full Text:



E. Felder, J.-L. Bucaille, Mechanical analysis of the scratching of metals and polymers with conical indenters at moderate and large strains, Tribology International 39, pp. 70–87, 2006.

B. J. Briscoe, Isolated contact stress deformations of polymers: the basis for interpreting polymer tribology, Tribology International, 31(1-3), pp. 121-126, 1998.

M.G. Gee, Low load multiple scratch tests of ceramics and hard metals, Wear 250, pp. 264–281, 2001.

Y. Xie, H.M. Hawthorne, A controlled scratch test for measuring the elastic property, yield stress and contact stress-strain relationship of a surface, Surface and Coatings Technology 127, pp. 130-137, 2000.

T. Hisakado, On the mechanism of contact between solid surfaces, Bull. JSME, 13(55), pp. 129-139, 1970.

N. Maan, and A. Broese Van Groenou, Low speed scratch experiments on steels, Wear 42, pp. 365-390, 1977.

S. Bellemar, M. Dao, S. Suresh, The frictional sliding response of elasto-plastic materials in contact with a conical indenter, International Journal of Solids and Structures 44, pp. 1970-1989, 2007.

Z. Liu, J. Sun and W. Shen, Study of plowing and friction at the surfaces of plastic deformed metals, Tribology International 35 pp. 511-522, 2002.

G. Subhash and W. Zhang, Investigation of the overall friction coefficient in single-pass scratch test, Wear 252, pp. 123-134, 2002.

F. Wredenberg, P-L Larsson, On the numerics and correlation of scratch testing, Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 573-594, 2007.

J.-L. Bucaille, Simulation numérique de l'indentation et de la rayure des verres organiques, PhD thesis, Ecole National Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2001.

S. Benayoun, M. Mendas, L. Avril, Comportement en rayage de différents aciers, Tribologie et conception mécanique, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, pp. 191-206, 2006.

J. M. Challen, and P. L. B. Oxley, An explanation of the different regimes of friction and wear using asperity deformation models, Wear 53, pp. 229-243, 1979.

K. Hokkirigawa, K. Kato, and Z. Z. Li, The effect of hardness on the transition of the abrasive wear mechanism of steel, Wear 123, pp. 241-251, 1988.

J.-L. Bucaille, E. Felder, and G. Hochstetter, Mechanical analysis of the scratch test on elastic and perfectly plastic materials with the three-dimensional finite element modelling, Wear 249, pp. 422-432, 2001.

ABAQUS/Explicit User Manuel, Version 6.6.

D. Tabor, The hardness of metals, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1951.

K.L. Johnson, Contact mechanics, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

V. Jardret, H. Zahouani, J. L. Loubet, and T. G. Mathia, Understanding and quantification of elastic and plastic deformation during a scratch test, Wear, 218, pp. 8-14, 1998.

H. O'Neill, Hardness measurement of metals and alloys, ed. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London, 1967.

C. Gauthier, S. Lafaye, and R. Schirrer, Elastic recovery of a scratch in a polymeric surface: experiments and analysis, Tribology International, 34(7), pp. 469-479, 2001.

V. Jardret, Apport des techniques sclérométriques à la caractérisation des propriétés mécaniques des surfaces”, PhD thesis, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, (1996).

C. Brookes, P. Green, P. H. Harrisson, and B. Oxley “Some observations on scratch and indentation hardness measurements, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 5 1284-1293, 1972.

T.C. Buttery, and J. F. Archard, Grinding and abrasive wear, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 185, pp. 537-551, 1971.

F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, Friction and lubrication of solids, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950.

S. Benayoun, Comportement au rayage, adherence et traitements de surface, Mémoire HDR, Université de Poitiers, 2003.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize