Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Scratch Behaviour of Steels: Description of the Effect of Work Hardening

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The scratch behaviour of three kind of steels witch one was work-hardened by uniaxial tensile tests until a three different values of deformation. In order to get rid of the indenter geometry effect, the representative deformation and the rheological factor X were used. To compare the results with analytical models, the hardness ratio was presented in function of the attack angle. In the aim of studying the effect of work hardening on the scratch behaviour of C45 steel, numerical simulations using ABAQUS/Explicit code were carried out for two cases of work-hardening. Furthermore, an examination by scanning electronic microscopy and optical interferometer of the ridges were performed. We show that, for steels slightly work-hardened, the shape ratio versus the factor X increase with a logarithmic law before being stabilized, towards a value of about 2.2 for X > 60. Lower values are observed for C45 steel with the annealed state. For attack angles between 0 and 30° the ratio of the normal hardness, Hn, with the indentation hardness, H, of these steels remains close to 1, except for C45 steel in the annealed state where for the weak ones (, Hn/H  ~1.6. The ratio of the tangential hardness to the normal hardness is largely greater than 1 and decreases for the steels studied to reach 1,6 – 1,9. The apparent friction coefficient will be decomposed to the sum of three times the representative deformation plus the adhesive friction coefficient. The model developed made it possible to interpret the phenomena of microcutting observed on the scratch of strongly work-hardened C45 steel.
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Scratch Test; Steels; Hardness; Friction; Finite Elements; Damage

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