Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Optimization of Planting Patterns in South Sulawesi

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



South Sulawesi is one of the nine provinces in Indonesia that has the highest contribution to the national income and its leading sector in agricultural crops including rice. The planning of planting patterns is highly dependent on the size of the intensity of rainfall in a particular area. Therefore, these conditions can have an impact on the level of suitability of crops to be planted. The purpose of this study has been to analyze the water balance and identify the optimal planting pattern. On the basis of rainfall data obtained from 4 rainfall stations, which are Mangkoso station, Manuba station, Mareppang station, and Ralla station, during the period of 25 years (1996 – 2020), the analysis to determine the average semi-monthly rainfall can be carried out. The results show that the maximum value of irrigation water requirements for rice-rice-palawija planting pattern obtained for simulation 1 has occurred on 1 September by 1.66 m3/s, while the minimum value has occurred on 1 January, 2 May, and 2 December by 0.23 m3/s. As a conclusion, the maximum value in simulation 3 has occurred on 2 October by 1.65 m3/s, while the minimum value has occurred on 1 February and 1 June by 0.23 m3/s. The optimization results show that the most optimal cropping pattern is planting 100% of rice in the first and second planting seasons with an area of 717 Ha and 71% planted with palawija in the third planting season of 509.68 Ha.
Copyright © 2022 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Evapotransportation; Water Availability; Mainstay Debit; Water Demand Irrigation; Water Balance

Full Text:



Public Work and Public Housing Office of Republic of Indonesia, Ministry Regulation of Public Work and Housing Office No. 14/PRT/M/2015; Criteria and Determination of Irrigation Area Status, 2015.

Central Bureau of Statistics of Barru Regency, Amount of precipitation by Month in Barru Regency 2019-2021, 2020.

J. P. Evans and B. F. Zaitchik, Modelling the Large-Scale Water Balance Impact of Different Irrigation Systems, Water Resour. Res., vol. 44, no. 8, 2008, pp. 1-13.

H. K. Attar, H. Noory, H. Ebrahimian, and A. Liaghat, Efficiency and Productivity of Irrigation Water Based on Water Balance Considering Quality of Return Flows, Agric. Water Manag., vol. 23, January 2020.

L. S. Pereira, P. Paredes, and N. Jovanovic, Soil Water Balance Models for Determining Crop Water and Irrigation Requirements and Irrigation Scheduling Focusing on the FAO56 Method and the Dual Kc Approach, Agric. Water Manag., vol. 241, February 2020.

A. P. Sujalu, M. Hidayanto, Y. Fiana, and A. Y. Pulihasih, Analysis of Water Balance to Determine Cropping Patterns of Food Crop in Sub-Watershed Tenggarong, Kutai Kartanegara Regency, Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., vol. 25, no. 1, 2019, pp. 214-220.

M. Aqil, I. U. Firmansyah, and M. Akil, Corn Plant Water Management, Jagung Tek. Produksi dan Pengemb., no. 1, 2007, pp. 219-237.

T. Hidayat, Y. Koesmaryono, and A. Pramudia, Analysis of Water Balance for Determine Growing Periods Potency of Food Crops in Banten Province, J. Floratek, vol. 2, 2006, pp. 55-62.

F. Djufry, Water Balance Modelling to Estimate the Surplus and Water, Inform. Pertan., vol. 21, no. 1, 2012, pp. 1-9.

I. W. Ayu, S. Prijono, and Soemarno, Evaluation of Soil Mosture Availability on Dry Land in The Unter Iwes, Sumbawa Besar, J-Pal, vol. 4, no. 1, 2013, pp. 18-25.

M. Karamouz, S. Nazif, and M. Falahi, Hydrology and hydroclimatology: principles and applications (Routledge: Taylor&Francis Group 2013).

Karnadi, Study of Planting Patterns on Peatlands in Sungai District, Kubu Raya Regency (Case Study of Limbung Village), Jurnal Teknik Sipil, vol 12, no. 2, 2012, pp. 191-202.

M. Utomo, Soil Science Fundamentals and Management (Penerbit Kencana 2016).

M. U. Nganji, B. H. Simanjuntak, and S. Suprihati, Evaluation of Land Suitability for Main Food Commodities in Umbu Ratu Nggay Barat District, Central Sumba Regency, Agritech, vol. 38, no. 2, 2018, pp. 172-177.

S. Dwiratna, E. Suryadi, and K. Kamaratih, Optimization of Planting Patterns in Rain-fed Paddy Fields in Cimanggung District, Sumedang Regency, J. Teknotan, vol. 10, no. 1, 2016, pp. 37-45.

A. P. Sulaju, Ismail, S. Hardiwnarto, C. Boer, and Sumaryono, Analyisis of Water Balance for Determinie Cropping Patterns for Food Crops iini Watershed Karangmumus-The Province of East Kalimantan, AgroLife Scientific Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, 2014, pp. 69-74.

R. Musa, L. Agus, and M. Trifandy, Study of Water Need for Kiru-Kiru Irrigation Area Due to Changes in Irrigation Area, Soppeng Riaja District, Barru Regency, vol. 6, no. 12, 2021, pp. 412-422.

J. L. Lee and W. C. Huang, Impact of climate change on the irrigation water requirement in Northern Taiwan, Water (Switzerland), vol. 6, no. 11, 2014, pp. 3339-3361.

Sunaryo, Y. D. Nola, B. Istijono, and Junaidi, Analysis of water balance on Lake Maninjau, West Sumatera, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 602, no. 1, 2019.

National Standardization Agency, Calculation of Mainstay River Discharge with Discharge Duration Curve,

A. Priyonugroho, Analysis of Irrigation Water Needs (Case Study in the Air Keban River Irrigation Area, Empat Lawang Regency), Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan, vol. 12, no. 3, 2014, pp. 457-470.

Z. Liu, Y. Huang, T. Liu, J. li, W. Xing, S. Akmalov, J. Peng, X. Pan, C. Guo, Y. Duan, Water balance analysis based on a quantitative evapotranspiration inversion in the Nukus irrigation area, Lower Amu River Basin, Remote Sens., vol. 12, no. 14, 2020.

Y. Wu and J. Chen, Estimating Irrigation Water Demand using An Improved Method and Optimizing Reservoir Operation for Water Supply and Hydropower Generation: A Case Study of the Xinfengjiang Reservoir in Southern China, Agric. Water Manag., vol. 116, 2013, pp. 110-121.

Mustafa, B., Aziz, N., Crop Water Requirement for Bakrajo Area in Sulaimaniya Governorate, (2020) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 11 (2), pp. 80-89.

Z. Sabara, IN. Afiah, R. Umam, Integration of Green Ergonomics in Robust Decision Making (RDM) Approach in Water Resource Management in Makassar City, International Journal of Technol ogy (IJTech), vol 13, no. 3, 2022.

Prasanchum, H., Kangrang, A., Hormwichian, R., Change in Inflow and Hydrologic Response Due to Proactive Agriculture Land Use Policy in Northeast of Thailand, (2020) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 11 (3), pp. 141-151.

Dadfar, A., Besharat, M., Ramos, H., Storage Ponds Application for Flood Control, Hydropower Generation and Water Supply, (2019) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 10 (4), pp. 219-226.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize