Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Implementation of AIS for Ship’s Collision Analysis: Case Study

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Safety measurement is an important step to detect the causes of a ship accident. The Malacca Strait is an international shipping lane that connects various countries. The Malacca Strait is categorized as a busy strait, which has a high level of danger. In this study the traffic conditions in the Malacca Strait have been analysed in hours, days and months based on AIS data.  Several factors that cause ship accidents are: ship condition factors, human error, engine, and electrical damage, navigation factors and so on. Based on the surveys, human error is the main cause of ship accidents on international shipping. In this study, the methodology of the m-SHEL model is used to analyse the interactions between ship operators, equipment, environment, regulation, management and human factors.  CPA and TCPA are determined based on AIS data. Then the risk assessment is carried out using the Samson model. The results of the risk assessment are useful to avoid collision. AIS data has been used as a source of data. In this context, AIS receiver has been installed at UTM Malaysia.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Collision; AIS Data; m-SHEL Model; Risk Assessment; Malacca Straits

Full Text:



Liu, C., Mao, Q., Chu, X., Xie, S. 2019. An Improved A-Star Algorithm Considering Water Current, Traffic Separation and Berthing for Vessel Path Planning. Applied Sciences. 9(6), pp.1-17, 2019.

IMO (1972) Convention on the international regulations for preventing collisionsat sea (COLREGs), 1972.

Abdelaal, M., Franzle, M., Hahn, A. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for trajectory tracking and collision avoidance of underactuated vessels with disturbances. Ocean Engineering, Elsevier,160, pp. 168–180, 2018.

Yamin, H., Linying, C., Rudy, R.N., Gelder, v. P.H.A.J.M.,: A ship collision avoidance system for human-machine cooperation during collision avoidance. Ocean Engineering, Elsevier, 217, pp.1-19, 2020.

Zaman M B, Kobayash E, Wakabayashi E, Khanfir S, Maimun A,. Implementation of automatic identification system (AIS) for evaluation of marine traffic safety in strait of Malacca using analytic hierarcy process (AHP) J. Japan Soc Nav Archit and Ocean Engineers (JASNAOE), 16 (3), pp. 141-153, 2012.

Park, D.J.; Yim, J.B.; Yang, H.S. A Study on Collision Avoidance Action in the Situation of Encountering Multiple Ships by the Reserve Officer. J. Korean Soc. Mar. Environ. Saf. Res. Pap. 24(3), pp.346–351, 2018.

He, Y.; Jin, Y.; Huang, L.W.; Xiong, Y.; Chen, P.F.; Mou, J.M. Quantitative analysis of COLREG rules and seamanship for autonomous collision avoidance at open sea. Ocean Engineering, Elsevier, 140, pp. 281–291, 2017.

Zhang, J.F.; Zhang, D.; Yan, X.P.; Haugen, S.; Soares, C.C. A distributed anti-collision decision support formulation in multi-ship encounter situations under COLREGs. Ocean Eng.105, pp. 336–348, 2015.

Li, S., Liu, J., Cao, X., Zhang, Y. A novel method for solving collision avoidance problem in multiple ships encounter situations. In: International Conference on Computational Logistics (ICCL 2018). Vietri Sul Mare (Salerno). Italy Springer. Cham, 2018.

Huang, Y., Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.,. Time-varying risk measurement for ship collision prevention. Risk Analysis, 40(1), pp. 24–42, 2020.

Wu, B., Cheng, T., Yip, T.L., Wang, Y. Fuzzy logic based dynamic decision-making system for intelligent navigation strategy within inland traffic separation schemes. Ocean Engineering. 197, 106909, 2020.

Thia-Eng C, Inggrid R L, Adrian Ross G S. The Malacca Straits Elsevier, 41 pp. 160-178, 2000.

Zaman M B, Kobayashi E, Wakabayashi N, Maimun A. Risk of navigation for marine traffic in the Malacca Strait using AIS In: Proc. Earth and Planetary Science, 14 p. 33-40, 2015.

Siswantoro, N., Semin, S., Zaman, M., Criticality Assessment for Marine Diesel Engine Using Failure Mode and Effect Criticality Analysis (FMECA) Approach: Case Study on Lubricating Oil System, (2020) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 14 (4), pp. 258-263.

Radam, I., Mahmud, M., Alexander, S., Factor Analysis of the Influence of River Crossing Ferry Use – A Case in Banjarmasin and Kuala Kurun, (2018) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 9 (4), pp. 154-160.

Blaich, M.; Köhler, S.; Reuter, J.; Hahn, A. Probabilistic Collision Avoidance for Vessels. Elsevier, IFAC-Papers Online, 48 (16), pp.69–74, 2015.

Szlapczynski, R.; Krata, P.; Szlapczynska, J. Ship domain applied to determining distances for collision avoidance manoeuvres in give-way situations. Ocean Eng., 165, pp.43–54, 2018.

Chai, T.; Weng, J.X.; Xiong, D.Q. Development of a quantitative risk assessment model for ship collisions in fairways. Saf. Sci., 91, pp. 71–83, 2017.

Mousazadeh, H.; Jafarbiglu, H.; Abdolmaleki, H.; Omrani, E.; Monhaseri, F.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, A.; Kiapei, A.; Salmani-Zakaria, Y.; Makhsoos, A. Developing a navigation, guidance and obstacle avoidance algorithm for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) by algorithms fusion. Ocean Eng. 159, pp.56–65, 2018.

Grinyak V M, Devyatisilnyi A S, Ivanenko Y S. Traffic Safety Assessment in Water Area. In Proceeding of IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol.272, pp.1-5, 2019.

Zaman M B, Kobayashi E, Wakabayashi N, Pitana T, Maimun A Fuzzy FMEA model for risk evaluation of ship collision in the Malacca Strait, Jornal of. Simulation, 8 (1), pp. 91-104, 2013.

Aouimer, Y., Boutchicha, D., Hamoudi, B., Numerical and Experimental Study of Fluid-Structure Interaction of a Marine Propeller, (2020) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 14 (5), pp. 282-289.

Santoso, A., Semin, S., Sampurno, B., Cahyono, B., Zaman, M., New Development of Piston Crown for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine to Improve Efficiency and Reduce NOx Emissions: a Review, (2020) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 8 (1), pp. 1-7.

Mujeeb-Ahmed, M.P.; Seo, J.K.; Paik, J.K. Probabilistic approach for collision risk analysis of powered vessel with offshore platforms. Ocean Eng., 151, pp. 206–221, 2018.

Husni, E., Design of Automatic Identification System (AIS) Receiver for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite, (2016) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 9 (6), pp. 435-441.

P. Lessing, L. Bernard, B. Tetreault, and J. Chaffin, Use of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) on Autonomous Weather Buoys for Maritime Domain Awareness Applications, OCEANS Conference, pp. 1-6, Singapore, May 2016.

Rao, S.N.; Balakrishnan, A. Harnessing Low-Cost Marine Internet for Collision Avoidance of Vessels at Sea. In Proceedings of the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 Conference, Chennai, India, 22–24 March 2017; pp. 2147–2152, 2017.

Lyu, H., Yin, Y., COLREGS-Constrained Real-time PathPlanning for Autonomous Ships UsingModified Artificial Potential Fields, Journal of Navigation, The Royal Institute of Navigation 2018, pp. 1-21, 2018.

Hexeberg, S.; Flåten, A.L.; Eriksen, B.H.; Brekke, E.F. AIS-based Vessel Trajectory Prediction. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Information Fusion, Xi’an, China, 10–13 July 2017; pp. 1–8, 2017.

Tu, E.M.; Zhang, G.H.; Rachmawati, L.; Rajabally, E.; Huang, G.B. Exploiting AIS Data for IntelligentMaritime Navigation: A Comprehensive Survey From Data to Methodology. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst.19, pp.1559–1582, 2018.

Schiaretti, M., Chen, L., Negenborn, R.R.,. Survey on autonomous surface vessels: Part II - categorization of 60 prototypes and future applications. Comput. Logist, vo.10572, pp. 234–252, 2017.

E. Akyuz and E. Celik, A Quantitative Risk Analysis by Using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy FMEA Approach: The Case of Oil Spill, Maritime Policy & Management, Vol. 45, n. 8, pp. 979-994, 2018.

Semin, S., Zaman, M., Santoso, A., Effect of Compression Ratio Improvement on the Performance of Dual Fuel Engine, (2019) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 13 (3), pp. 142-147.

Valdez Banda, O.A., Kannos, S., Goerlandt, F., van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M., Bergstr ̈om, M., Kujala, P.,. A systemic hazard analysis and management process for the concept design phase of an autonomous vessel. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 191, pp.1-16, 2019.

Jalil, A.S.; Dawal, S.Z.; and Zakwan, N.M., Human performance in transportation a comparative study of human performance models. Journal of Engineering and Technology, pp. 111-115, 2012.

Yang, X., Utne, I.B., Holmen, I.M.,. Methodology for hazard identification in aquaculture operations (MHIAO). Saf. Sci. 121, pp. 430–450, 2020.

Fang, M.-C., Tsai, K.-Y., Fang, C.-C.,. A simplified simulation model of ship navigation for safety and collision avoidance in heavy traffic areas. J. Navig. 71(4), pp.837–860, 2017.

Itoh, H.; Mitomo, N; Matsuoka, T.; and Murohara, Y., An extension of m-SHEL model for analysis of human factors at ship operation.In. Proc of International Conference on Collision and Groundings of Ships (ICCGS), pp.118-112, 2004.

Nguyen, M.; Zhang, S.; Wang, X. A Novel Method for Risk Assessment and Simulation of Collision Avoidance for Vessels based on AIS. Algorithms 2018, 11, 204.

Hilget, H., Baldauf, M. A common risk model for the assessment of encounter situations on board ships, Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift. 49, pp.531–542. 1997.

Zaman, M.B.: Study on safety of navigation using automatic identification system for marine traffic area case study: Malacca Straits J Mar Eng Innovation and Research (IJMEIR), 1(1), pp. 26-31, 2016.

Mou, J.; Ligteringen, H.; and Gan, L., A Study on collision avoidance in busy waterways by using AIS data. Journal of Ocean Engineering, Elsevier. Vol.37, No.5-6, pp.483-490, 2010.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize