Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Single Layer Formation of Plasma Based Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) process is relatively a new approach to 3D metal printing technology. The process is capable of producing complex parts directly from 3D computer-aided design data by utilizing normal welding equipment. Gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and plasma arc welding are three different types of heat sources commonly used in WAAM to melt the welding wire. This approach is primarily different from the normal arc welding which is used to join materials. This is because in WAAM, materials are deposited layer by layer consecutively until a 3D structure is produced. In this study, the WAAM process is based on plasma arc welding. The study explores the effect of the processing parameters using a full factorial approach. Through the combination of these parameters, different types of deposition have been observed. These are little deposition, droplet deposition, discontinuous deposition and continuous deposition. The last one can be obtained at a specific combination of stand-off distance, speed and current. The recommended optimal parameters can produce the first layer, which is characterized by the continuous single-track formation. Continuous deposition is essential in WAAM as it is the foundation for producing a good 3D structure during layer-by-layer deposition.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Plasma Wire Deposition; Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing; Additive Manufacturing; 3D Printing

Full Text:



R. Udroiu and A. Nedelcu, Optimization of additive manufacturing processes focused on 3D printing, Rapid Prototyping Technology-Principle and Function Requirements, (IntechOpen, 2011, pp. 1-28).

H.A. Habeeb, M.R. Alkahari, F.R. Ramli, R. Hasan, S. Maidin, Strength and porosity of additively manufactured PLA using a low cost 3D printing, in Proceedings of Mechanical Engineering Research Day, pp. 69–70, 2016.

E. Herderick, Additive manufacturing of metals: A review, Material Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 176252, 2011, pp. 1413–1425.

Lo Russo, L., Zhurakivska, K., Speranza, D., Salamini, A., Ciavarella, D., Ciaramella, S., Martorelli, M., A Comparison Among Additive Manufactured Polymeric Complete Dental Models Resulting from Intraoral Scans: an in Vivo Study, (2018) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 11 (1), pp. 1-4.

K. V. Wong, A. Hernandez, A Review of additive manufacturing, ISRN Mechanical Engineering, vol. 2012, 2012, pp. 1–10.

D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri, H. Li, Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies developments and future interest, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 81, no. 1-4, 2015, pp. 465-481.

M. Qian, W. Xu, M. Brandt, H. P. Tang, Additive manufacturing and postprocessing of Ti- 6Al-4V for superior mechanical properties, MRS Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 10, 2016,
pp. 775-784.

M.A. Nazan, F.R. Ramli, M.R. Alkahari, M.N. Sudin, M.A. Abdullah, Process Parameter Optimization of 3D Printer using Response Surface Method, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 12, no 7, 2017, pp. 17.

W. E. Frazier, Metal additive manufacturing: A review, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, vol. 23, no. 6, 2014, pp. 1917.1928.

S. Jhavar, N. K. Jain, C. P. Paul, Enhancement of deposition quality in micro-plasma transferred arc deposition process, Material Manufacturing Process, vol. 29, no. 8, 2014, pp. 1017-1023.

H. Takagi, H. Sasahara, T. Abe, H. Sanomiya, S. Nishiyama, S. Ohta, K. Nakamura, Material property evaluation of magnesium alloys fabricated using wire and arc based additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, vol. 24, 2018, pp. 498-507.

Y. Zhong, L. E, Rannar, S. Wikman, A. Koptyug, L. Liu, D. Cui, Z. Shen, Additive manufacturing of ITER first wall panel parts by two approaches: Selective laser melting and electron beam melting, Fusion Engineering and Design, vol. 116, 2017, pp. 24-22.

M. R. Alkahari, T. Furumoto, T. Ueda, A. Hosokawa, Consolidation characteristics of ferrous-based metal powder in additive manufacturing, Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, System, and Manufacturing, vol. 8, no. 1, 2014, p. JAMDSM0009-JAMDSM0009.

F. Bayle, M. Doubenskaia, Selective laser melting process monitoring with high speed infra-red camera and pyrometer, in Fundamental of laser assisted micro-and nanotechnologies, (Proc. SPIE, 2008, p. 698505).

P. S. Almeida, S. William, Innovative process model of Ti-6Al-4V additive layer manufacturing using cold metal transfer (CMT), in Proceeding of twenty-first annual international solid freeform fabrication symposium, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA, (2010).

E. Brandl, C. Leyens, and F. Palm, Mechanical Properties of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Using Wire and Powder Based Processes, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 26, 2011, p. 12004.

F. Martina, J. Mehnen, S. W. Williams, P. Colegrove, and F. Wang, Investigation of the benefits of plasma deposition for the additive layer manufacture of Ti-6Al-4V, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 212, no.6, 2012, pp. 1377-1386.

C. Zhang, Y. Li, M. Gao, X. Zeng, Wire arc additive manufacturing of Al-6Mg alloy using variable polarity cold metal transfer arc as power source, Material Science and Engineering: A, vol. 711, 2018, pp. 415-423.

J.Z. Li, M.R. Alkahari, N.A. Rosli, R. Hasan, M.N. Sudin, F.R. Ramli, Review of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing for 3D Metal Printing, International Journal of Automation Technology, vol 13, no 3, 2019, pp. 346-353.

J. Ding, P. Colegrove, J. Mehnen, S. Williams, F. Wang, P. S. Almeida, A computationally efficient finite element model of wire and arc additive manufacture, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 70, no. 1-4, 2014, pp. 227-236.

M. P. Mughal, H. Fawad, R. A. Mufti, Three-dimensional finite-element modelling of deformation in weld-based rapid prototyping, Proceeding of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol 220, no. 6, 2006, pp. 875-885.

K. P. Karunakaran, S. Suryakumar, V. Pushpa, and S. Akula, Low cost integration of additive and subtractive processes for hybrid layered manufacturing, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 26, no. 5, 2010, pp. 490-499.

P. S. Almeida, S. William, Innovative process model of Ti-6Al-4V additive layer manufacturing using cold metal transfer (CMT), in Proceeding of twenty-first annual international solid freeform fabrication symposium, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA, (2010).

M. Liberini, A, Astarita, G. Camptelli, A, Scippa, F. Montevecchi, G. Venturini, M. Durante, L. Boccarusso, F. M. C. Minutolo, A. Squillace, Selection of optimal process parameters for wire arc additive manufacturing, Procedia Cirp, vol. 62, 2017, pp. 470-474.

K. Hoefer, A. Haelsig, P. Mayr, Arc-based additive manufacturing of steel component - comparison of wire- and powder-based variants, Welding in the World, vol. 62. No. 2, 2018, 243–247.

U. Reisgen, R. Sharma, L. Oster, E. Zanders, Plasma multiwire technology with alternating wire feed for tailor made material properties in wire and arc additive manufacturing, Metals, vol. 9, no. 7, 2019, pp. 745.

Y. Nilsiam, P. Sanders, J. Pearce, Applications of open source GMAW-based metal 3D printing, Journal of Manufacturing and Material Processing, vol. 2, no. 1, 2018, pp.18.

Z. Jandric, M. Labudovic, and R. Kovacevic, Effect of heat sink on microstructure of three-dimensional parts built by welding-based deposition, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 44, no. 7-8, 2004, pp. 785-796.

B. Baufeld, O. Van der Biest, and R. Gault, Additive manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V components by shaped metal deposition: Microstructure and mechanical properties, Materials & Design, vol. 31, no. 1, 2010, pp. S106-S111.

Q. Wu, J. Lu, C. Liu, X. Shi, Q. Ma, S. Tang, H. Fan, S. Ma, Obtaining uniform deposition with variable wire feeding direction during wire-feed additive manufacturing, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 32, no. 16, 2017, pp. 1881-1886.

V. Korzhyk, V. Khaskin, O. Voitenko, V. N. Sydorets, O, Dolianovskaia, Welding Technology in Additive Manufacturing Processes of 3D Objects, Material Science Forum, (Trans Tech Pulb, 2017, pp.121-130)

F. Stempfer, Method and arrangement for building metallic objects by solid freeform fabrication, US Patent App. 2016.

N. A. Rosli, M. R. Alkahari, F. R. Ramli, S. Maidin, M. N. Sudin, S. Subramoniam, and T. Furumoto, Design and development of a low-cost 3D metal printer, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research and Development (JMERD), Vol.41, No.3, pp. 47-54, 2018.

T. E. Abioye, J. Folkes, and A. T. Clare, A parameteric study of Inconel 625 wire laser deposition, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 213, no. 12, 2013, pp. 2145-2151.

T. C. Nguyen, D. C. Weckman, and D. a Johnson, The discontinuous weld bead defect in high- speed gas metal arc welds, Welding Journal-New York, vol. 86, no. 11, 2007,
pp. 360–372.

M. R. Alkahari, T. Furumoto, T. Ueda, and A. Hosokawa, Melt pool and single-track formation in selective laser sintering/ selective laser melting, Advanced Material Research, vol. 933, 2014, pp. 196–201.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize