Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Charpy Impact Response of Fibre-Metal Laminates Based on Woven Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) possess several advantages over their constituents, such as metallic alloys and composite materials. FMLs offer high impact and fatigue resistance to the entire structure, providing structural integrity and safety, which is required in the transportation field. The objective of this study is to investigate the Charpy impact behaviour of FMLs with different kenaf (K)/glass (G) fibre configurations. Composite panels have been fabricated through the hot press moulding compression method. FML panels have been formed by bonding the metallic skin layers to the composite laminates. Charpy impact test has been conducted using 50J Charpy hammer following ASTM E-23 in edgewise and flatwise impact orientations. Results have demonstrated that hybrid FMLs with the placement of glass fibres in the outer layers of hybrid composites have shown the highest Charpy impact energy absorption for both impact orientations. The energy absorption for G/K2/G FMLs has been 3.5% and 0.9% higher than non-hybrid glass fibre reinforced FMLs in edgewise and flatwise impact orientations respectively. The non-hybrid kenaf fibre reinforced FMLs have given the lowest impact energy absorption regardless of impact orientations.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Fibre Metal Laminates; Hybrid Composites; Charpy Impact Properties; Impact Orientations; Natural Fibres

Full Text:



N.L. Feng, S.D. Malingam, K.A. Zakaria, M.Z. Selamat, Investigation on the Fatigue Life Characteristic of Kenaf/Glass Woven-Ply Reinforced Metal Sandwich Materials, Journal of Sandwich Structures & Materials, vol 21, n. 7, 2019, pp. 2440 – 2455.

M.A.M. Daud, M.Z. Omar, J. Syarif, Z. Sajuri, Effect of Wire-EDM Cutting on Fatigue Strength of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy, Jurnal Mekanikal, vol. 30, 2010, pp. 68 – 76.

N.L. Feng, S.D. Malingam, R. Jenal, Z. Mustafa, S. Subramonian, A Review of the Tensile and Fatigue Responses of Cellulosic Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 2018, pp. 1 – 16.

H. Helms, U. Lambrecht and U. Höpfner, Energy Savings by Lightweighting, IFEU Institute for Energy-and Environmental Research, 2003.

G.B. Chai, M. Periyasamy, Low Velocity Impact Response of Fibre-Metal Laminates–A Review, Composite Structures, vol. 107, 2014, pp. 363 – 381.

D. Sivakumar, S. Kathiravan, L.F. Ng, M.B. Ali, M.Z. Selamat, S. Sivaraos, O. Bapokutty, Experimental Investigation on Charpy Impact Response of Kenaf Bast Fibre Reinforced Metal Laminate System, ARPN Journal of Engineering And Applied Sciences, vol. 13, n. 3, 2018, pp. 822 – 827.

M. Sadighi, R.C. Alderliesten, R. Benedictus, Impact Resistance of Fiber-Metal Laminates: A Review, International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. 49, 2012, pp. 77 – 90.

G. Reyes, H. Kang, Mechanical Behavior of Lightweight Thermoplastic Fiber–Metal Laminates, Journal of materials processing technology, vol. 186, n. 1 – 3, 2007, pp. 284 – 290.

T. Sinmazçelik, E. Avcu, M.Ö. Bora, O. Çoban, A Review: Fibre Metal Laminates, Background, Bonding Types and Applied Test Methods, Materials & Design, vol. 32, n. 7, 2011, pp. 3671 – 3685.

P. Cortes, W.J. Cantwell, The Prediction of Tensile Failure in Titanium-Based Thermoplastic Fibre–Metal Laminates, Composites Science and Technology, vol. 66, n. 13, 2006, pp. 2306 – 2316.

X.H. Loh, M.A.M. Daud, M.Z. Selamat, Study on Fibre Length and Composition of Kenaf-Polypropylene (K-PP) Composite for Automobile Interior Parts, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 695, 2014, pp. 36 – 39.

V.K. Thakur, A.S. Singha, Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites, Iranian Polymer Journal, vol. 19, n. 1, 2010, pp. 3 – 16.

S.D. Salman, Z. Leman, M.T. Sultan, M.R. Ishak, F. Cardona, Ballistic Impact Resistance of Plain Woven Kenaf/Aramid Reinforced Polyvinyl Butyral Laminated Hybrid Composite, BioResources, vol. 11, n. 3, 2016, pp. 7282 – 7295.

N.L. Cieh, S. Sulaiman, M.N. Mokhtar, M. N. Naim, Bleached Kenaf Microfiber as a Support Matrix for Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase Immobilization via Covalent Binding by Different Coupling Agents, Process Biochemistry, vol. 56, 2017, pp. 81 – 89.

S. Sulaiman, N.L. Cieh, M.N. Naim, S.M.M. Kamal, Covalent Immobilization of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase on Kenaf Cellulose Nanofiber and its Application in Ultrafiltration Membrane System, Process Biochemistry, vol. 55, 2017, pp. 85–95.

A. Shahzad, Impact and Fatigue Properties of Hemp–Glass Fiber Hybrid Biocomposites, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 30, n. 16, 2011, pp. 1389 – 1398.

N.L. Feng, S.D. Malingam, C.W. Ping, N. Razali, Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption of Kenaf/Pineapple Leaf Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Hybrid Composites, Polymer Composites, 2019, pp. 1 – 10.

S.K. Nayak, S. Mohanty, Sisal Glass Fiber Reinforced PP Hybrid Composites: Effect of MAPP on the Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties, Journal of reinforced plastics and composites, vol. 29, n. 10, 2010, pp. 1551 – 1568.

M.J. Sharba, Z. Leman, M.T.H. Sultan, M.R. Ishak, M.A.A. Hanim, Partial Replacement of Glass Fiber by Woven Kenaf in Hybrid Composites and Its Effect on Monotonic and Fatigue Properties, BioResources, vol. 11, n. 1, 2016, pp. 2665 – 2683.

L.F. Ng, D. Sivakumar, K.A. Zakaria, O. Bapokutty, S. Sivaraos, Influence of Kenaf Fibre Orientation Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Structure of Fibre Metal Laminate, Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, vol. 25, 2017, pp. 1 – 8.

S.D. Malingam, L.F. Ng, K.H. Chan, K. Subramaniam, M.Z. Selamat, K.A. Zakaria, The Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Kenaf/Glass Fibre Reinforced Hybrid Composites, Materials Research Express, vol. 5, 2018, pp. 095304.

L.M.G. Vieira, J.C.D. Santos, T.H. Panzera, J.C.C. Rubio, F. Scarpa, Novel Fibre Metal Laminate Sandwich Composite Structure with Sisal Woven Core, Industrial crops and products, vol. 99, 2017, pp. 189 – 195.

R.E. Farsani, S.M.R. Khalili, V. Daghigh, Charpy Impact Response of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Epoxy and Basalt Fiber Metal Laminate Composites: Experimental Study, International Journal of Damage Mechanics, vol. 23, n. 6, 2014, pp. 729 – 744.

W. Hufenbach, F.M. Ibraim, A. Langkamp, R. Böhm, A. Hornig, Charpy Impact Tests on Composite Structures–An Experimental and Numerical Investigation, Composites Science and Technology, vol. 68, n. 12, 2008, pp. 2391 – 2400.

R. Yahaya, S.M. Sapuan, M. Jawaid, Z. Leman, E.S. Zainudin, Mechanical Performance of Woven Kenaf-Kevlar Hybrid Composites, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 33, n. 24, 2014, pp. 2242 – 2254.

M.A. Caminero, G.P. Rodríguez, V. Muñoz, Effect of Stacking Sequence on Charpy Impact and Flexural Damage Behavior of Composite Laminates, Composite Structures, vol. 136, 2016, pp. 345 – 357.

V.N. Anbazhagan, R. Edwin Raj, J.T. Winowlin Jappes, Development and Characterization of Novel Fiber-Metal-Laminate (FML) using Aluminium Sheet and Ceramic Mat, Materials Express, vol. 9, n. 4, 2019, pp. 358 – 364.

N. Zareei, A. Geranmayeh, R. Eslami-Farsani, The Effect of Different Configurations on the Bending and Impact Properties of
the Laminated Composites of Aluminum-Hybrid Basalt and Jute Fibers-Epoxy, Fibers and Polymers, vol. 20, n. 5, 2019, pp. 1054 – 1060.

F. Bahari-Sambran, J. Meuchelboeck, E. Kazemi-Khasragh, R. Eslami-Farsani, S. Arbab Chirani, The Effect of Surface Modified Nanoclay on the Interfacial and Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber Metal Laminates, Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 144, 2019, pp. 106343.

M. Ramesh, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Fibre based Bio-Materials: A Review on Processing and Properties, Progress in Materials Science, vol. 78, 2016, pp. 1 – 92.

S.M.R. Khalili, V. Daghigh, R.E. Farsani, Mechanical Behavior of Basalt Fiber-Reinforced and Basalt Fiber Metal Laminate Composites under Tensile and Bending Loads, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 30, n. 8, 2011, pp. 647 – 659.

K.J. Wong, U. Nirmal, B.K. Lim, Impact behavior of short and continuous fiber-reinforced polyester composites, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 29, n. 23, 2010, pp. 3463 – 3474.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize