Dispensed-Based Bio-Manufacturing Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


Engineered scaffolds play a crucial role in tissue engineering. Made from biomaterial(s), tissue scaffolds facilitate cell growth and transport of nutrients and wastes while degrading gradually themselves. Fabrication of scaffolds has proven challenging, with an important barrier being the inability control the microstructure and spatially-controlled distribution of cells to mimic the structure and cell organization in native tissues while maintaining both mechanical and biological properties appropriate for tissue engineering applications. Recently, research has been emerging to an interdisciplinary area, i.e., bio-manufacturing scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, in which living cells are added during the fabrication process. This paper briefly reviews recent work and achievements in the field of dispensed-based bio-manufacturing, focus on the scaffold mechanical properties important to manufacturing, the control of scaffold microstructure, the preservation and control of cell viability. Also presented is a discussion on the challenges and the opportunities in this emerging field. In addition, time-dependent mechanical properties of scaffolds due to scaffold degradation and cell growth are discussed, along with their modeling methods. As an example, this paper also presents the development of living cell scaffolds for peripheral nerve repair, which is being pursued in the author’s lab
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Dispensing; Bio-Manufactory; 3D Scaffold; Tissue Engineering

Full Text:



Sachlos, E., and Czernuszka, J. T. Review on the application of sold freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds. European Cells and Materials 5, 29, 2003.

Ang, T.H., et al. Fabrication of 3D chitosan-hydroxyapatite scaffold using a robot dispensing system. Material Science & Engineering C20, 35, 2002.

Landers, R., et al. Rapid prototyping of scaffolds derived from thermoreversible hydrogels and tailored for applications in tissue engineering. Biomaterials 23, 4437, 2003

Wang, F., et al. Precision extruding deposition and characterization of cellular poly-ε-caprolactone tissue scaffolds. Rapid Prototyping Journal 10, 42, 2004.

Mironov, V., et al. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering. Trends in Biotechnology 21, 57, 2003.

Smith, C. M., et al. Three-dimensional bioassembly tool for generating viable tissue-engineered constructs. Tissue Engineering 10, 1566, 2004.

Xu, T., et al. Viability and electrophysiology of neural cell structures generated by the inkjet printing method. Biomaterials 27, 3590, 2006.

Wang, X., et al. Generation of three-diemensional hepatocyte/gelatin strucures with rapid prototyping system. Tissue Engineering 12, 83, 2006.

Cohen, D., et al. Direct freeform fabrication of seeded hydrogels in arbitrary geometries. Tissue Engineering 12, 1325, 2006.

Chang, R., et al. Effects of dispensing pressure and nozzle diameter on cell survival form solid freeform fabrication–based direct cell writing. Tissue Engineering 14, 41, 2008.

Ringeisen, B. R., et al. Laser printing of pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells. Tissue Engineering 10, 483, 2004.

Fedorovich, N., et al. Hydrogels as extracellular matrices for skeletal tissue engineering: state-of the-art and novel application in organ printing. Tissue Engineering 13, 1905, 2007.

Chen, X. B., Li, M. G., and Ke, H. Modeling of the flow rate in the dispensing-based process for fabricating tissue scaffolds. ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 130, 21003, 2008.

Li, M. G., Tian, X. Y., Zhu, N., Schreyer, D., and Chen, X. B. 2009 Modeling process-Induced cell damage in the bio-dispensing process Tissue Engineering Part C 16, 533, 2010.

Li, M. G., Tian, X. Y., and Chen, X. B. Temperature effect on the shear-induced cell damage in biofabrication. Artificial Organs, 2010 (in press).

Hutmacher, D. W. Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage. Biomaterials 21, 2529, 2000.

Blitterwijk, C. Tissue Engineering. Academic Press, 2008.

Schmidt, C. E., and Leach, J. B. Neural tissue engineering: strategies for repair and regeneration. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 5, 293, 2003.

Fang, Z., Starly, S., and Sun, W. Computer-aided characterization for effective mechanical properties of porous tissue scaffolds. Computer-Aided Design 37, 65, 2005.

Smeal, R. M., Rabbitt, R., Biran, R., and Tresco, P. A. Substrate curvature influences the direction of nerve outgrowth. Annals of biomedical eng. 33, 376 2005.

Palsson, B. Φ., and Bhatia, S. N. Tissue Engineering. Pearson Education Inc., 2004

Hollister, S. J., et al. Optimal design and fabrication of scaffolds to mimic tissue properties and satisfy biological constraints. Biomaterials 23, 4095, 2002.

Bawolin, N. K., Li, M. G., Chen, X. B., and Zhang, W. J. 2010 Modeling material-degradation-induced elastic property of tissue engineering scaffolds. ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 132, 111001-1, 2010.

Friswell, M. I., and Mottershead, J. E. Finite Element Model Updating in Structural Dynamics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

Cheng, J., et al. Rheological Properties of cell-hydrogel composites extruding through small diameter tips. ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 130, 021014, 2008.

Becker, T. A., and Kipke, D. R. Flow properties of liquid calcium alginate polymer injected through medical microcatheters for endovascular embolization. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61, 533, 2002.

Voron’ko, N. G., et al., Rheological properties of Gels of gelatin with sodium alginate Russ. J. Appl. Chem. 75, 790, 2002.

Li, M. G., Tian, X. Y., and Chen, X. B. Modeling of flow rate, pore size and porosity for the dispensing-based tissue scaffolds fabrication. ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 131, 034501, 2009.

Tian, X. Y., Li, M. G., Cao, N., Li, J. W., and Chen, X. B. Characterization of flow behaviours of alginate/hydroxyapaptite mixtures for tissue scaffold fabrication. Biofabrication 1, 045005, 2009.

Shor, L., et al. Precision extruding deposition (PED) fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering Biofabrication 1, 015003, 2009

Kim, J. Y., et al. Cell adhesion and proliferation evaluation of SFF-based biodegradable scaffolds fabricated using a multi-head deposition system. Biofabrication 1, 045005, 2009.

Yan, Y., at al. Fabrication of viable tissue-engineered constructs with 3D cell-assembly technique. Biomaterials 26, 5864, 2005.

Vozzi, G., et al. Microsyringe-based deposition of two-dimensional and three-dimensional polymer scaffolds with a well-defined geometry for applications to tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering 8, 1089, 2002.

Woodfield, T. B. F., Malda, J., Wijn, J., Peters, F., Riesle, J., and Blitterswijk, C. A. Design of porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering using a three-dimensional fibre-deposition technique. Biomaterials 25, 4149, 2004.

Smay, J. E., Cesarano, J., and Lewis, J. A. Colloidal inks for directed assembly of 3-D periodic structure. Langmui 18, 5429, 2002.

Khali,l S,, and Sun, W., Biopolymer deposition for freeform fabrication of hydrogel tissue constructs. Material Science & Engineering C27, 469, 2007.

Fedorovich, N., et al. Hydrogels as extracellular matrices for skeletal tissue engineering: state-of the-art and novel application in organ printing. Tissue Engineering 13, 1905, 2007.

Nicodemu, G., et al. Cell encapsulation in biodegradable hydrogels for tissue engineering applications. Tissue Engineering 14, 149-165, 2008.

Li, M. G. Modeling of the Dispensing-Based Tissue Scaffold Fabrication Processes. PhD Thesis University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, 2010.

Anseth, K. S., Mechanical properties of hydrogels and their experimental determination. Biomaterials 17, 1647, 1996.

Barbee, K, A, Mechanical cell injury. Annals New York Academy of Sciences 1066, 67, 2005.

Nair, K., et al. Characterization of cell viability during bioprinting process. Biotechnol. J. 4, 1168, 2009.

Wnek, G. E., and Blowlin, G. L. Encyclopaedia of biomaterials and biomedical engineering. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004.

Bronzino, J. D. The Biomedical Engineering Handbook. CRC Press, 2000.

Stoll, G., and Müller, H. W. Nerve injury, axonal degeneration and neural regeneration: basic insights. Brain Pathol. 9, 313, 1999.

Zhu, N., Li, M. G., Guan, Y. J., Schreyer, D. J., and Chen, X. B. Effect of laminin blended with chitosan on axon guidance on patterned substrates. Biofabrication, 2010 (in press).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize