Network Charges to Reflect the Cost to Support Busbar Voltages Under N-1 Contingencies
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)
– Traditionally, network charges are to reflect the cost of reinforcing circuits and transformers based on components’ thermal limits, typically under normal conditions. Very few papers address the reinforcement cost driven by busbar voltage limits, particularly including contingencies. This paper proposes a new charging methodology that can relate nodal power perturbation to nodal voltage degrading rate, which in turn links to the incremental investment cost required to maintain voltage levels. In this paper, the incremental cost is derived by making use of busbar voltage spare capacity to gauge time to invest in a reactive power compensation device for a given load growth rate. The time to invest takes into account not only the base voltage profiles of busbar profiles in the system, but also accounts for those under N-1 contingencies (outage of each line in turn). The new charging methodology is illustrated on the IEEE 14 bus network, demonstrating the difference in charges when including the effects from contingencies, providing better economic signals to potential network users. This will help them to make informed decisions as to whether to invest in reactive power devices or pay the network operators for reactive power provision
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
Western Power Distribution (Wales) plc, “Statement of Use of System Charging Methodology for Western Power Distribution (South Wales) plc”, pp. 11, April 2007. Available: www.westernpower.co.uk
Furong Li, N.P. Padhy, Ji Wang and B. Kuri, “Cost-Benefit Reflective Distribution Charging Methodology”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 58 – 64, Feb. 2008.
S. Hao, A. Papalexopoulos, “Reactive power pricing and management”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Volume 12, no. 1, pp. 95-104, Feb. 1997.
D. Chattopadhyay, K. Bhattacharya, J. Parikh, “Optimal reactive power planning and its spot-pricing: an integrated approach”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Volume 10, no. 4, pp. 2014 – 2020, Nov.1995.
K.K. Mandal, B. Kar, D. Pal, M. Basu, N. Chakraborty, “Reactive Power Pricing in a Deregulated Electricity Industry”, Power Engineering Conference-7th International, Volume 2, no. 9110484, pp. 853-858, Dec. 2005.
J. Zhong and K. Bhattacharya, “Toward a competitive market for reactive power”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol.17, no.4, pp.1206–1215, Nov.2002.
V.M. Dona and A.N. Paredes, “Reactive power pricing in competitive electric markets using the transmission losses function”, IEEE Porto Power Tech Proceedings, Vol. 1, pp. 6,10-13Sept.2001.
Y. Dai, Y.X. Ni, F.S. Wen and Z.X. Han, “Analysis of reactive power pricing under deregulation”, IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vol. 4, pp. 2162 – 2167, 16-20 July 2000.
V. Cataliotti, M.G. Ippolito, F. Massaro, G.Pecoraro and E.R. Sanseverino, “A New Method for the Price Determination of the Reactive Power Supply”, UPEC '06. Proceedings of the 41st International Universities Power Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 242 – 246, 6-8 Sept. 2006.
J.D. Weber, T.J. Overbye, P.W. Sauer and C.L. DeMarco, “A simulation based approach to pricing reactive power”, Proceedings of the Thirty-First Hawaii International Conference System Sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 96 – 103, 6-9 Jan. 1998.
A.D. Papalexopoulos and G.A. Angelidis, “Reactive power management and pricing in the California market”, IEEE Mediterranean MELECON Electrotechnical Conference, pp.902–905,16-19May 2006.
K.L. Lo and Y.A. Alturki, “Towards reactive power markets. Part 1: reactive power allocation”, IEE Proceedings, Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 59 – 70, 12 Jan. 2006.
M.L. Baughman, S.N. Siddiqi, “Real-time pricing of reactive power: theory and case study results”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Volume 6, no. 1, pp.23-29, Feb.1991.
J.W. Lamont and J. Fu, “Cost analysis of reactive power support”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems,Vol.14, no.3, pp.890–898,Aug.1999.
Furong Li and D.L. Tolley, “Long-Run Incremental Cost Pricing Based on Unused Capacity”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1683 – 1689, Nov. 2007.
Ji Wang and Furong Li, “LRMC pricing based MW + MVAR-miles methodology in open access distribution network”, CIRED 19th International Conference on Electrity Distribution, page 0790, 21-24 May 2007.
P.M. Sotkiewicz and J.M.Vignolo, “Nodal pricing for distribution networks: efficient pricing for efficiency enhancing DG”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 1013–1014,May 2006.
B.S. Lecinq and M.D. Ilic, “Peak-load pricing for electric power transmission”, Proceedings of the Thirtieth Hawaii International Conference System Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 624-633, 7-10 Jan 1997.
Kovacs, R.R., Leverett, A.L., A load flow based method for calculating embedded, incremental and marginal cost of transmission capacity. Power Systems, IEEE Transaction on, 1994.9(1):pp. 272-278.
H. Rudnick, R. Palma and J.E. Fernandez, “Marginal pricing and supplement cost allocation in transmission open access”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1125–1132,May1995.
Hyi Yi Heng, Ji Wang and Furong Li, “Comparison between long-run incremental cost pricing and investment cost-related pricing for electricity distribution network”, CIRED 19th International Conference on Electrity Distribution, page 0717, 21-24 May 2007.
Y.Z. Li and A.K. David, “Wheeling rates of reactive power flow under marginal cost pricing”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1263 – 1269, Aug. 1994.
D. Tolley, F. Prashad and M. Veitch, “Charging transmission”, Power Engineer, Vol. 17, no.2,pp.22–25,April/May2003.
G. Strbac, D. Kirschen and S. Ahmed, “Allocating transmission system usage on the basis of traceable contributions of generators and loads to flows”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems,Vol.13, no.2,pp.527–534,May1998.
Park Young-Moon, Park Jong-Bae, Lim Jung-Uk and Won Jong-Ryul, “ An analytical approach for transaction costs allocation in transmission system”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Volume 13, no.4, pp. 1407 – 1412, Nov. 1998.
M. T. Ponce De Leao and J. T. Saraiva, “Solving the Revenue Reconciliation Problem of Distribution Network Providers Using Long-Term Marginal Prices”, IEEE Power Engineering Review, Vol.22, no.11,pp.55–55,Nov.2002.
H.H. Happ, “Cost of wheeling methodologies”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 147 – 156, Feb. 1994.
D. Shirmohammadi, P.R. Gribik, E.T. K. Law, J. H. Malinowski and R.E. O'Donnell, “Evaluation of Transmission Network Capacity Use for Wheeling Transactions”, IEEE Power Engineering Review, Vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 37 – 37, Nov. 1989.
J. Kabouris, S. Efstathiou, A. Koronides and A. Maissis, “Transmission charging for the Greek Electric Power System”, PowerTech Budapest Electric Power Engineering, pp. 16, 9 Aug.-2 Sept. 1999.
P.M. Sotkiewicz and J.M. Vignolo, “Allocation of fixed costs in distribution networks with distributed generation”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 639 – 652, May 2006.
D. Shirmohammadi, X.V.Filho, B. Gorenstin, and M.V.P. Pereira, “Some fundamental technical concepts about cost based transmission pricing”, IEEE Tran. On Power Systems, vol. 11 no. 2, pp 1001-1008, May, 1996.
J. Bialek, “Allocation of transmission supplementary charge to real and reactive loads”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 749 – 754, Aug. 1998.
P. Jiuping, Y. Teklu, S. Rahman and K. Jun, “ Review of usage-based transmission cost allocation methods under open access”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1218–1224, Nov.2000.
J.W. Marangon Lima, “Allocation of transmission fixed charges: an overview”, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1409 – 1418, Aug. 1996.
The Statement of the Use of System Charging Methodology, The Charging Team. National Grid, U.K.[Online]. http//www. nationalgrid.com/uk/indifo/charging/pdfs.UoSC_Apr_03_(I3R0).pdf.
Furong Li and E. Matlotse, “Long-Run Incremental Cost Pricing Based on Nodal Voltage Spare Capacity”, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 1 – 5, 20-24 July 2008.
Matlotse E. and Furong Li, “Long-run incremental cost pricing for the use of network reactive power compensation devices for systems with different R/X ratios”, IEEE PES General Meeting, pp. 1-8, 26-30 July 2009.
Hui Yi Heng, Furong Li and Xifan Wang, “Charging for Network Security Based on Long-Run Incremental Cost Pricing”, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1686–1693, Nov. 2009.
Strbac G. and Jenkins N., Network Security of the Future UK, PIU, U.K., 2001. [Online]. Available: http://www.tyndall. uea.ac.uk /research/theme2/ Network_Security_ UMIST.pdf.
Mutale J., Strbac G., and Pudjianto D., “Methodology for cost reflective pricing of distribution networks with distributed generation,” ,” in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, 2007.
Pudjianto D., Strbac G. and Mutale J., “Access and pricing of distribution network with distributed generation,” in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, 2007.
Xu Y., Li F., Li H., Rizy D. T. and Kueck J. D., Using Distributed Energy Resources to Supply Reactive Power for Dynamic Voltage Regulation, (2008) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 3 (5), pp. 795 – 802.
Niknam T., Nayeripour M., Olamaei J. and Arefi A., An Efficient Hybrid Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm for Daily Volt/Var Control at Distribution System Including DGs, (2008) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 3 (3), pp. 513 – 524.
Rahiel D., Khiat M., Chaker A., Haimour R. and Benzerga F., “VAr/Voltage Control and Optimization: Numerical and Heuristic Approaches”, (2008) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 3 (3), pp. 491 – 497.
Gonzalez M., Cardenas V. and Visairo N., Voltage Regulation with a Dynamic Voltage Restorer Using Reactive Power for Low DC Energy Storage Utilization, (2009) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 4 (1), pp. 75 – 85.
Western Power Distribution (WPD), “The Statement of the Use of System Charging Methodology”, April 2007.
Central Networks East, “Use of System Charging Methodology”, ttp://www.eon-k.com/downloads/CN_East_UoS_methodology_statement_Apr08.pdf, 7th April 2008.
Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution plc, “Statement of charges for use of Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution PLC‟s Electricity Distribution Network”, http://www.ssepd.co.uk, 1st April 2008.
Berg S.V., Adams J. and Niekum B., “Power factors and the efficient pricing and production of reactive power”, The Energy Journal, Vol. 4, pp. 93-102.
“IEEE 14 Bus Test Data”, Avalable:http://www.ee.washington.edu
- There are currently no refbacks.
Please send any question about this web site to firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2005-2020 Praise Worthy Prize