MILD Combustion: the Future for Lean and Clean Combustion Technology
The future of today's society is greatly depending on the energy development. Due to the depletion of fossil fuel and the gradual development of energy generation from renewable sources, energy security becomes an important intergovernmental issue. This paper discusses the energy needs and the new combustion technology that will aid in achieving lean and clean combustion. In 2001, British Petroleum estimated the total natural gas reserves to be 187.5 trillion cubic meters, which can supply up to 7×10^15 MJ of energy. The total petroleum reserves can supply up to 1,383 billion barrels which amounts to 8.4×10^15 MJ of energy. Due to the increasing population and economic development, these fuel reserves will not last long. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions are two important and critical issues. The new combustion technology, moderate and intense low oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion provides a feasible solution. MILD, also known as flameless oxidation (FLOX) and high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) was discovered by Wünning in 1989. The thermal efficiency of combustion can be increased by about 30% and NOx emission reduced by 50%. MILD also can be achieved using different types of fuel such as gas fuel, liquid fuel and industrial waste fuel (saw dust). MILD combustion will be an important future combustion technology due to it producing higher efficiency and very low emissions.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
IEA, World Energy Outlook. Paris, International Energy Agency, 2009.
A. Maczulak, Renewable Energy, Sources and Methods. New York, USA, Facts on File Inc. 2010.
S. Shafiee and E. Topal E, When will Fossil Fuel Reserves be Diminished, Energy Policy, Vol. 37 n. 1 pp. 181-189, 2009.
US EIA. 1999. Natural Gas Issues and Trends, Technical Report DOE/EIA-0560(1999), Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy, Washington DC, 1999.
, L. Loukarfi, Numerical Study of Swirling Confined Non-premixed Flames with Determination of Pollutant Emissions, (2007) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 1 (6), pp. 618 - 627.*A. Khelil, H. Naji
Ganapathi, P., Robinson, Y., Experimental investigation on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with polymer oil - Ethanol blends, (2013) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 7 (5), pp. 919-924.
IEA, World Energy Outlook (WEO), International Energy Agency, IEA, Paris, 2006.
F. Orr, Energy and Climate: Challenges and Solutions. GCEP, Stanford University, 2005.
IEA/OECD, CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion: 1971–2000, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and Int. Energy Agency, Paris, 2002.
P. Jonathan, Responses to Questions on the Design Elements of a Mandatory Market-Based Greenhouse Gas Regulatory System, World Resources Institute, Washington, 2006.
US EIA. 2010., Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Early Release, Technical report, US Energy Information Administration, 2010.
US EPA. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled, Technical Report EPA-456/F-99-006R, Clean Air Technology Center, US Environmental Protection Agency, North Carolina, US, 1999.
AET The Formation of NOx, Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc, http://www.alentecinc.com/papers, accessed on 14 Jun 2012
IPCC, Contribution of Working groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, 2007.
B.B Dally, A.N Karpetis and R.S. Barlow, Structure of Turbulent Non-Premixed Jet Flames in a Diluted Hot Co-Flow, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 29 n. 1, pp. 1147-1154, 2002.
B.B Dally, E. Riesmeier and N Peters, Effect of Fuel Mixture on Moderate and Intense Low Oxygen Dilution Combustion, Combustion & Flame Vol. 137 n. 4, pp. 418-431, 2004.
A. Cavaliere and M. de Joannon, MILD Combustion, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 30 pp. 329-366, 2004.
A. Cavaliere, M. de Joannon and R. Ragucci, Highly Preheated Lean Combustion. In: Dunn-Derek, D. (ed.) Lean Combustion: Technology and Control, Oxford, UK, Elsevier, pp. 55-94, 2008.
J.G. Wünning, Flammlose Oxidation von Brennstoff. PhD Thesis, University of Technology, Aachen, 1996.
18 J Wünning, 1991. Flammenlose oxidation von Brennstoff mit hochvorgewärmter Luft. Chemie Ingenieur Technik, 63(12): 1243-1245, 1991.
J.A Wünning, and J.G. Wünning, Flameless oxidation to reduce thermal no-formation. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 23 n. 1, pp. 81-94, 1997.
M. Katsuki, and T. Hasegawa, The Science and Technology of Combustion in Highly Preheated Air. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 27 n. 2, pp. 3135-3146, 1998.
H. Tsuji, A. Gupta, T. Hasegawa, M. Katsuki, K. Kishimoto and M. Morita, High Temperature Air Combustion, from Energy Conservation to Pollution reduction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2003.
V.K Arghode and A.K Gupta. Effect of Flow Field for Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) for Cas Turbine Combustion, Applied Energy, Vol. 87 n.5, pp. 1631-1640, 2010.
V.K Arghode and A.K Gupta. Development of High Intensity CDC Combustor for Gas Turbine Engine. Applied Energy, Vol.88, pp. 963-973, 2011.
H Davy, On the Fire-Damp of Coal Mines, and on Methods of Lighting the Mines so as to Prevent its Explosion, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London Vol. 106, pp. 1-22, 1816.
D.D. Rankin, Lean combustion: technology and control, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2008.
IFP, Lean and Clean Combustion Fuel, Industrial Fuel and Power, Brazil, 2010.
B. Ghobadian, H. Rahimi, A. M. Nikbakht, G. Najafi and T.F Yusaf, Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission Analysis Using Waste Cooking Biodiesel Fuel with an Artificial Neural Network, Renewable Energy, Vol. 34 n. 4, pp. 976-982, 2009.
T.F. Yusaf, B.F. Yousif, and M.M. Elawad, 2011. Crude Palm Oil Fuel for Diesel-Engines: Experimental and ANN Simulation Approaches, Energy, Vol. 36 n. 8, pp. 4871-4878, 2011.
G. Najafi, B. Ghobadian and T.F. Yusaf, Algae as a Sustainable Energy Source for Biofuel Production in Iran: a Case Study, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15 n. 8, pp. 3870-3876, 2011.
M.M. Noor , A.P. Wandel, and T. Yusaf, A Review of MILD Combustion and Open Furnace Design Consideration, International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 6, pp. 730-754, 2012.
G.M. Choi, and M. Katsuki, Advanced Low NOx Combustion Using Highly Preheated Air, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 425, pp. 639-652, 2001.
P.R. Medwell, P.A.M. Kalt and B.B. Dally, Simultaneous Imaging of OH, Formaldehyde, and Temperature of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames in a Heated and Diluted Coflow, Combustion and Flame, Vol. 148 n. 1-2, pp. 48–61, 2007.
M.M. Noor, A.P Wandel, and T. Yusaf, Numerical Investigation of Influence of Air and Fuel Dilution for Open Furnace Mild Combustion Burner, Southern Regional Engineering Conference, Engineers Australia, 1-2 Sept, USQ, SREC2012-002, 2012.
E. Abtahizadeh, J.V. Oijen, P.D. Goey, Numerical Study of Mild Combustion with Entrainment of Burned Gas Into Oxidizer and/or Fuel Streams, Combustion and Flame, Vol. 1596, pp. 2155-2165, 2012.
M.M.Noor, A.P. Wandel and T.Yusaf, 2013, Numerical Study of Oxygen Dilution and Temperature Distribution of Biogas Combustion in Bluff-Body MILD Burner, Australian Combust. Symposium, 6-8 Nov, Uni. of Western Australia, Australia, ACS2013-57, pp. 299-303.
M.M. Noor, A.P. Wandel, and T. Yusaf, The modelling of the effect of air fuel ratio on unburned hydrocarbons for MILD combustion, 2nd Malaysian Postgraduate Conference, 7-9 Jul, Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia, MPC2012-27: pp. 159-163, 2012.
Rao, In Session on Lifted Flames in Hot Co-flow Coordinator: Gordon R and Roekaerts D, TNF 10 Workshop, 29-31 July 2010, Tsinghua University Beijing, 2010.
J. Chen, H. Kolla, R. Grout, A. Gruber, C. Yoo, E. Knudsen and H. Pitsch, H, Modelling of Lifted Flames in Vitiated Coflow: Insight and Challenges from DNS, TNF 11 Workshops, 26-28 July 2012, Darmstadt, Germany, 2012.
C. Duwig, D. Stankovic, L. Fuchs, G. Li and E. Gutmark, Experimental and Numerical Study of Flameless Combustion in a Model Gas Turbine Combustor, Combust. Science and Technology, Vol. 180 n. 2, pp. 279–295, 2008.
Z.G. Tang, P.Y. Ma, Y.L. Li, C.J. Tang, X.J. Xing and Q.Z. Lin, Design and Experiment Research of a Novel Pulverized Coal Gasifier Based on Flameless Oxidation Technology, Proc CSEE, Vol. 30 n. 8, pp. 50–55, 2010.
Y Tang, J. Wu J., A. Ma, X. Gou, L. Liu and E. Wang 2011. Effect of recirculated flue gas position on combustion and NOx emission for high temperature air combustion, International Conference on Computer Distributed Control and Intelligent Environmental Monitoring, IEEE, pp. 1177-1180, 2011.
P.F. Li, J.C. Mi, B.B. Dally, F.F. Wang, L. Wang, Z.H. Liu, S. Chen and C.G. Zheng, Progress and Recent Trend in MILD Combustion, Science China Technology Science, Vol. 54, pp. 255-269, 2011.
B.B Dally, P. Li and J. Mi, MILD Oxy-Combustion of Gaseous Fuels, TNF 11 Workshop, 26-28 July 2012, Darmstadt, Germany, 2012.
M. Balat, H. Balat, Biogas as a Renewable Energy Source: A Review, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Vol. 41 n. 14, pp. 1280-1293, 2009.
H. Hartmann and B.K Ahring, The Future of Biogas Production, Riso International Energy Conference on Technologies for Sustainable Energy Development, in the Long Term. Riso-R-1517(EN), Roskilde, Denmark, May 23-25, 2005 pp. 163172.
The Sietch, http://www.blog.thesietch.org, accessed on 01 March 2013
A.F. Colorado, B.A. Herrera and A.A Amell, Performance of a Flameless Combustion Furnace Using Biogas and Natural Gas, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101 n.7, pp. 2443-2449, 2010.
F.J. Weinberg, Heat-Recirculating Burners: Principles and Some Recent Developments, Combustion Science and Technology, Vol. 121, pp. 3-22, 1996.
B.J Kraus and S. Barraclough, New Configuration May Make it Harder to Say No to Thermal Regeneration, Industrial Heating, Jan 2012, LXXX, No. 1, pp. 24-27, 2012.
C. Raj, and S. Sendilvelan, Effect of Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Additives on Exhaust Emission of a Diesel Engine, International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 2 pp. 144-156, 2010.
P. Mullinger and B. Jenkins, Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, Design and Operation, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2008.
Metal Finishing, http://www.metalfinishing.com, accessed on 01 March 2013.
T.F. Yusaf, D.R. Buttsworth, K.H. Saleh, and B.F. Yousif, CNG-diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission Analysis with the Aid of Artificial Neural Network, Applied Energy, Vol 87 n. 5, pp. 1661-1669, 2010.
A. Parente, J.C. Sutherland, B.B Dally, L. Tognotti, and P.J. Smith, Investigation of the Mild Combustion Regime via Principal Component Analysis, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 33, pp. 3333-3341, 2011.
B. Danon, Furnaces with Multiple Flameless Combustion Burners, PhD Thesis, Technische Uni. Delft, Germany, 2011.
M.M Rahman, M. Kamil, and R.A. Bakar, R.A. Engine Performance and Optimum Injection Timing for 4-cylinder Direct Injection Hydrogen Fuelled Engine. Simulation Modeling Practice Theory, Vol. 19 n. 2, pp. 734–751, 2011.
M. Kamil, M.M. Rahman, and R.A. Bakar, Performance Evaluation of External Mixture Formulation Strategy in Hydrogen Fuelled Engine. Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, Vol. 1 pp. 87–98, 2011.
K.I Hamada, M.M Rahman, M.A Abdullah, R.A Bakar and A.R.A Aziz, Effect of Mixture Strength and Injection Timing on Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 38 pp. 3793-3801, 2013.
M. Kamil, M.M. Rahman, and R.A. Bakar, Modeling of SI Engine for Duel Fuels of Hydrogen, Gasoline and Methane with Port Injection Feeding System, Energy Education, Science and Technology, Vol. 29 n. 2, pp. 1399–1416, 2012.
A. Parente, C. Galletti, and L. Tognotti, Effect of the Combustion Model and Kinetic Mechanism on the MILD Combustion in an Industrial Burner Fed with Hydrogen Enriched Fuels, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 33, pp. 7553-7564, 2008.
T. Plessing, N. Peters and J.G. Wünning, Laser Optical Investigation of Highly Preheated Combustion with Strong Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 27 n. 2, pp. 3197-3204, 1998.
C. Galletti, A. Parente, and L. Tognotti, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a MILD Combustion Burner, Combustion and Flame, Vol. 151 n. 4, pp. 649–664, 2007.
M.D. Joannon, P. Sabia and A. Cavaliere, MILD Combustion, in Handbook of Combustion, Vol. 5, edited by M. Lackner, F. Winter and A.K. Agarwal, Wiley-Vch, Weinheim, 2010.
J. Aminian, C. Galleti, S. Shahhosseini and L. Tognotti. . Key Modeling Issues in Prediction of Minor Species in Diluted-Preheated Combustion Conditions, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 31, pp. 3287-3300, 2011.
B.B Dally, S.H Shim, R.A Craig, P.J Ashman, and G.G Szego, On the Burning of Sawdust in a MILD Combustion Furnace, Energy Fuels, Vol. 24, pp. 3462-3470, 2010.
M. Derudi, and R. Rota, Experimental Study of the MILD Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbons, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute Vol. 33, pp. 3325-3332, 2011.
M.M.Noor, A.P. Wandel and T.Yusaf, 2013, The Development of MILD Combustion Open Burner Experimental Setup, 2nd Int. Conf. of Mech. Eng. Research, 1-3 Jul, Malaysia, ICMER2013-P341, 1-19.
G. G. Szegö, B.B. Dally, and G.J. Nathan, Scaling of NOx Emissions From a Laboratory-scale MILD Combustion Furnace, Combustion Flame, Vol. 154, pp. 281-295, 2008.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Please send any questions about this web site to email@example.com
Copyright © 2005-2017 Praise Worthy Prize