Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Review of Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC Motor Basic Drives Based on Analysis and Simulation Study

S.A.KH. Mozaffari Niapour(1*), GH. Shokri Garjan(2), M. Shafiei(3), M. R. Feyzi(4), S. Danyali(5), M. Bahrami Kouhshahi(6)

(1) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Iran, Islamic Republic of
(2) Private Research Laboratory, Iran, Islamic Republic of
(3) Research Department of Fars Power Maintenance Company, Shiraz, Iran, Islamic Republic of
(4) Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Iran, Islamic Republic of
(5) Faculty of Engineering, Ilam University, Iran, Islamic Republic of
(6) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Iran, Islamic Republic of
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/iree.v9i5.827

Abstract


Brushless DC (BLDC) motors and their drives have been increasingly considered in a broad range of applications due to their significant features. The implementation of these motors is possible thanks to firstly, the progress of permanent-magnet (PM) technologies which provide high efficiency, power density, and torque for these motors. Secondly, the structure and special features of these motors have prepared a basis for simpler control and smaller size compared to those with the same power. In this paper, the basic drives of BLDC motors have been reviewed in order to provide a useful reference for primary research in conventional methods of these types of motors. To present a proper insight to various drive techniques in these motors a systematic classification to control strategies with principles of these techniques has been made. In addition, computer simulations have been utilized in order to achieve a more accurate evaluation, provide the possibility of comparative analysis between various strategies, and place emphasis on the constraints and features of each method. Apart from the comparison of different methods of each strategy, a general comparison among the different methods of various strategies has been made based on the torque ripple, analysis of frequency, and losses of the BLDC motor drive as well as various applications of the different controlling methods. Moreover, considering the importance of electric vehicles (EVs) in industry, selection of the best controlling method for this type of applications together with energy regeneration has been discussed.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


Brushless DC Motor Drive; Current Control; Electric Vehicle; Simulation Study; Torque Control; Voltage Control

Full Text:

PDF


References


K. W. Lee, D. K. Kim, B. T. Kim, B. I. Kwon, A novel starting method of the surface permanent-magnet BLDC motors without position sensor for reciprocating compressor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 44 n. 1, Jan./Feb. 2008, pp. 85 – 92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.2007.912734

K. Iizuka, H. Uzuhashi, M. Kano, T. Endo, K. Mohri, Microcomputer control for sensorless brushless motor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-21 n. 4, May./ June. 1985, pp. 595 – 601.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.1985.349715

C. C. Jensen, F. Profumo, T. A. Lipo, A low loss permanent magnet brushless DC motor utilizing tape wound amorphous iron, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28 n. 3, May./ June. 1992, pp. 646 – 651.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.137452

R. C. Becerra, M. Ehsani, High-speed torque control of brushless permanent magnet motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. vol. 35 n. 3, August 1988, pp. 402 – 406.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/41.3113

T. Kim, H. W. Lee, M. Ehsani, Position sensorless brushless DC motor/generator drives: review and future trends, IET Electr. Power Appl., vol. 1 n. 4, July 2007, pp. 557 – 564.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa:20060358

T. M. Jahns, W.L. Soong, Pulsating torque minimization techniques for permanent magnet AC motor drives-a review, IEEE Trans. Ind .Electron., vol. 43 n. 2, April 1996, pp. 321 – 330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/41.491356

J. W. Dixon, I.A. Leal, Current control strategy for brushless DC motors based on a common DC signal, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17 n. 2, March 2002, pp. 232 – 240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/63.988834

H. Tan, S. L. Ho, A novel single current sensor technique suitable for BLDCM drives, IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, ~PEDS 1999~, July 27-29, 1999.

J. Bocker, Advanced hysteresis control of brushless DC motors, Deutsch-Koreanisches Symposium, June, 2004, Aachen.

P. Wipasuramonton, K. Sowsuwan, Current-controlled PWM technique for brushless DC motor drives with a single current sensing resistor, IEEE 31th International Conference on Telecommunications Energy, ~ INTELEC 2009~, October 18-22, 2009, Incheon, South Korea.

T. Hui, J. Jian-zhong, W. Xin-yao, W. Yong, A novel current sensor technique for brushless DC motor drives, Journal of Shanghai University., vol. 4 n. 1, March 2000, pp. 42– 48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11741-000-0030-0

M. Bonfe, M. Bergo, A brushless motor drive with sensorless control for commercial vehicle hydraulic pumps, IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ~ ISIE 2008~, June 30 -July 2, 2008, Cambridge, England.

N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, J. H. Jang, S. K. Sul, Comparison of PM motor structures and sensorless control techniques for zero-speed rotor position detection, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22 n. 6, March 2007, pp. 2466 – 2475.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2007.904238

T. M. Jahns, Torque production in permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives with rectangular current excitation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. LA-20 n. 4, July/August 1984, pp. 803 – 813.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.1984.4504490

J. Cros, P. Viarouge, Synthesis of high performance PM motors with concentrated windings, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 17 n. 2, June 2002, pp. 248 – 253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tec.2002.1009476

Z.Q. Zhu, D. Howe, Electrical machines and drives for electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, Proceedings of IEEE., vol. 95 n. 4, April 2008, pp. 746 – 765.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jproc.2006.892482

T. Kenjo and S. Nagamori, Permanent-Magnet and Brushless DC Motors (Oxford, U.K. Clarendo, 1985).

T. H. Kim, M. Ehsani, Sensorless control of the BLDC motors from near-zero to high speeds, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19 n. 6, June 2004, pp. 1635 – 1645.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2004.836625

J. B. Cao, B. G. Cao, Fuzzy-logic-based sliding-mode controller design for position-sensorless electric vehicle, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24 n. 10, June 2009, pp. 2368 – 2378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2009.2020429

P. Pillay, R. Krishnan, Modeling, simulation, and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives, Part II: the brushless DC motor drive, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 25 n. 2, March/April 1989, pp. 274 – 279.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.25542

S. A. KH. Mozaffari Niapour, M. Tabarraie, M. R. Feyzi, Design and analysis of speed-sensorless robust stochastic L∞-induced observer for high-performance brushless DC motor drives with diminished torque ripple, Energy Convers Management, vol. 64, December 2012, pp. 482 – 498.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2012.05.011

S. A. KH. Mozaffari Niapour, M. Tabarraie, M. R. Feyzi, A new robust speed-sensorless control strategy for high-performance brushless DC motor drives with reduced torque ripple, Control Engineering Practice, vol. 24, March 2014, pp. 42 – 54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.11.014

T. J. E. Miller, Brushless Permanent-Magnet and Reluctance Motor Drives (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989).

Duane C. Hanselman, Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design (McGraw-Hill, 1994).

D. M. Brod, D.W. Novotny, Current control of VSI-PWM inverters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-21 n. 4, May/June 1985, pp. 562 – 570.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.1985.349711

T. S. Kim, S.C. Ahn, D .S. Hyun, A new current control algorithm for torque ripple reduction of BLDC motors. IEEE 27th Annual Conference on Industrial Electronics Society, ~ IECON 2001 ~, 29 November -02 December, 2001, Denver, USA.

B. Akin, M. Bhardwaj, Trapezoidal control of BLDC motors using hall effect sensors, Texas Instruments, 2010.

T.M. Jahns, R.C. Becerra, M. Ehsani, Integrated current regulation for a brushless ECN drive, IEEE Trans. Power Electron, vol. 6 n. 1, January 1991, pp. 118 – 126.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/63.65010

S. S. Bharatkar, R. Yanamshetti, D. Chatterjee, A. K. Ganguli, Reduction of commutation torque ripple in a brushless DC motor drive, IEEE 2nd International Conference on Power and Energy, ~ PECon 2008 ~, 1-3 December, 2008, Johor Bahru, Malaysia..

S. J. Park, H. W. Park, M. H. Lee, F. Harashima, A new approach for minimum-torque-ripple maximum-efficiency control of BLDC motor. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 47 n. 1, February 2000, pp. 109 – 114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/41.824132

Z. Xiangjun, C. Boshi, Influences of PWM mode on the current generated by BEMF of switch-off phase in control system of BLDC motor, IEEE 5th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ~ ICEMS 2001 ~, 18-20 August, 2001, Shenyang, China.

W. Kun, R. Junjun, T. Fanghua, Z. Zhongchao, A novel PWM scheme to eliminate the diode freewheeling in the inactive phase in BLDC motor, IEEE 35th Annual Conference on Power Electronics Specialists, ~ PESC 04 2004 ~, 20-25 June, 2004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pesc.2004.1355477

Z. Xiangjun, C. Boshi, Z. Pingping, L. Huaigang, A new method to minimize the commutation torque ripple in trapezoidal BLDC motor with sensorless drive, IEEE 3rd International Conference on Power Electronics and Motion Control, ~ IPEMC 2000 ~, 15-18 August, 2000, Beijing, China.

Q. Li, H. Huang, B. Yin, The study of PWM methods in permanent magnet brushless DC motor speed control system, IEEE International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ~ ICEMS 2008 ~, 17-20 October, 2008, Wuhan, China.

Y. S. Lai, F. S. Shyu, Y. K. Lin, Novel PWM technique without causing reversal dc-link current for Brushless DC motor drives with bootstrap driver, IEEE 40th International Conference on Industry Applications ~ IAS 2005 ~, 2-6 October, 2005.

J.Y. Hung, Z. Ding, Design of currents to reduce torque ripple in brushless permanent magnet motors, IEE Electric Power Applications., vol. 140 n. 4, July 1993, pp. 260 – 266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-b.1993.0032

D.C. Hanselman, Minimum torque ripple, maximum efficiency excitation of brushless permanent magnet motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 41 n. 3, June 1994, pp. 292 – 300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/41.293899

F. Piriou, A. Razek, R. Perret, and H. Le-Huy, Torque characteristics of brushless DC motors with imposed current waveform, IEEE Annual Meetting on Industry Applications ~ IAS 1986 ~, September, 1986.

C. Marchland, A. Razek, Optimal torque operation of digitally controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor drives, IEE Electric Power Applications., vol. 140 n. 3, May 1993, pp. 232 – 240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-b.1993.0027

S. Clenet, Y. Lefevre, N. Sadowski, S. Astier, M. L. Mazenc, Compensation of permanent magnet motors torque ripple by means of current supply wave shapes control determined by finite element method. IEEE Trans. Magn.., vol. 29 n. 2, March 1993, pp. 2019 – 2023.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/20.250806

Z.Q. Zhu, Y. Liu, D. Howe, Comparison of performance of brushless DC drives under direct torque control and PWM current control, IEEE 80th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems ~ ICEMS 2005 ~, 29 September, 2005, Wuhan, China.

T. Kenjo, S. Nagamori, Permanent Magnet and Brushless DC Motors (Clarendon Press, 1984).

J. R. Hendershot, Miller, Design of Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors (Oxford Univ. Press, 1994).

G. Jang, M. G. Kim, A bipolar-starting and unipolar-running method to drive a hard disk drive spindle motor at high speed with large starting torque, IEEE Trans. Magn.., vol. 41 n. 2, February h 2005, pp. 292 – 300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2004.840314

G. Yan, N. Fusun, O. Serteller, Brushless direct current (BLDC) machine bipolar–unipolardriving circuit education study, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 2 n. 2, January 2010, pp. 2694 – 2699.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.398

J. Faiz, M. R. Azizian, M. Aboulghasemian-Azami, Simulation and analysis of brushless DC motor drives using hysteresis, ramp comparison and predictive current control techniques, Simulation Practice and Theory, vol. 3 n. 6, January 1996, pp. 347 – 363.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0928-4869(95)00014-3

L. Malesani, L. Rossetto, P. Tomasin, A. Zuccato, Digital adaptive hysteresis current control with clocked commutations and wide operating range, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 32 n. 2, March/April 1996, pp. 316 – 325.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.491480

D. M. E. Ingram, S. D. Round, A fully digital hysteresis current controller for an active power filter, International Journal of Electronics., vol. 86 n. 10, October 1999, pp. 1217 – 1232
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002072199132761

A. Moussi, A. Torki, An Improved efficiency permanent magnet brushless DC motor pv pumping system, Larhyss Journal., vol. 1 n. 1, May 2002, pp. 139 – 156.

P. C. Desai, A. Emadi, A novel digital control technique for brushless DC motor drives: current control, IEEE International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives, 19 May, 2005, San Antonio, USA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iemdc.2005.195742

M.F. Rahman, K.S. Low, K.W. Lim, Approaches to the control of torque and current in a brushless DC drive, IEEE 6th International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives, 8-10 September, 1993, Oxford, England.

Texas Instruments Europe, DSP Solutions for BLDC Motors, March 1997.

T. Kim, H. W. Lee, L. Parsa, M. Ehsani, Optimal power and torque control of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor/generator drive in electric and hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE 41st Annual Meeting on Industry Applications, ~ IAS 2006 ~, 8-12 October, 2006, Tampa, USA.

N. Gaurav, C. K. Narayanr, A survey and comparison of characteristics of motor drives used in electric vehicles, IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, ~ CCECE 2006 ~, May, 2006, Ottawa, Canada.

K.T. Chau, C. C. Chan, Chunhua Liu, Overview of permanent-magnet brushless drives for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 55 n. 6, June 2008, pp. 2246 – 2257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tie.2008.918403

G. MadhusudhanaRao, B.V.SankerRam, Kumar B.Smapath, Kumar K.Vijay, Speed Control of BLDC Motor Using DSP, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 2 n. 3, November 2010, pp. 143 – 147.

G. MadhusudhanaRao, B.V.SankerRam, Speed control of BLDC motor with common current. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 2 n. 6, November 2009, pp. 182 – 187.

Kyeong-Hwa Kim, Myung-Joong Youn, Performance comparison of PWM inverter and variable DC link inverter schemes for high-speed sensorless control of BLDC motor, Electronics Letters., vol. 38 n. 21, October 2002, pp. 1294 – 1295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:20020848

J. Musil, 3-Phase BLDC Drive Using Variable DC Link Six-Step Inverter. May 2006, Available: http://www. freescale.com.

I. Takahashi, T. Koganezawa, G. Su, K. Oyama, A super high speed PM motor drive system by a quasi-current source inverter, IEEE Annual Meeting on Industry Applications, ~ IAS 1993 ~, 2-8 October, 1993, Toronto, Canada.

Rashid, M. H., Power Electronics - Circuits, Devices, and Applications (Prentice-Hall, Ltd., 1988).

D. K. Kim, K. W. Lee, B.I. Kwon, Commutation torque ripple reduction in a position sensorless brushless DC motor drive, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21 n. 6, November 2006, pp. 1762 – 1768.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2006.882918

R. Carlson, M. Lajoie-Mazenc, J. C. dos S. Fagundes, Analysis of torque ripple due to phase commutation in brushless dc machines, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28 n. 3, May/June 1992, pp. 632 – 638.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.137450

H. Lu, L. Zhang, W. Qu, A new torque control method for torque ripple minimization of BLDC motors with un-ideal back EMF, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23 n. 2, March 2008, pp. 950 – 958.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2007.915667

Guangwei Meng, Hao Xiong, Huaishu Li, Commutation torque ripple reduction in BLDC motor using PWM-ON-PWM mode, IEEE International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems ~ ICEMS 2009 ~, 15-18 November, 2009, Tokyo, Japan.

K. Y. Nam, W.T. Lee, C. M. Lee, J.P. Hong, Reducing torque ripple of brushless DC motor by varying input voltage, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 42 n. 4, April 2008, pp. 1307 – 1310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2006.871937

Y.A. Chapuis, D. Roye, J. Davoine, Principles and implementation of direct torque control by stator flux orientation of an induction motor, IEEE 10th Conference on Applied Power Electronics ~ APEC 1995 ~, 5-9 March, 2009, Dallas USA.

J. N. Nash, Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 33 n. 2, March/April 1997, pp. 333 – 341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.567792

Y. Liu, Z. Q. Zhu, D. Howe, Direct torque control of brushless DC drives with reduced torque ripple. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41 n. 2, March/April 2005, pp. 599 – 608.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.2005.844853

S. B. Ozturk, W. C. Alexander, H. A. Toliyat, Direct torque control of four-switch brushless DC motor with non-sinusoidal back EMF, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25 n. 2, February 2010, pp. 263 – 271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2009.2028888

S. B. Ozturk, H. A. Toliyat, Direct torque control of brushless dc motor with non-sinusoidal back-EMF, IEEE International Conference on Electric Machines & Drives ~ IEMDC 2007 ~, 3-5 May, 2007, Antalya, Turkey.

Mirzaei, H., Pahlavani, M.A., Naderi, P., Comparison of direct torque control of BLDC motor with minimum torque ripple in four and six-switch inverters, (2013) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 8 (3), pp. 971-980.

Y. Liu, Z. Q. Zhu, D. Howe, Instantaneous torque estimation in sensorless direct torque controlled brushless DC motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 43 n. 5, October 2005, pp. 1275 – 1283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.2006.880854

C. C. Chan, J. Z. Jiang, W. Xia, K. T. Chau, Novel wide range speed control of permanent magnet brushless motor drives, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 10 n. 5, September 1995, pp. 539 – 546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/63.406841

Y. H. Lim, Y. S. Kook, Y. Ko, A new technique of reducing torque ripples for BDCM drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 44 n. 5, October 1997, pp. 735 – 739.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/41.633482

Z. Q. Zhu, S. Ruangsinchaiwanich, N. Schofield, D. Howe, reduction of cogging torque in interior-magnet brushless machines, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 39 n. 5, September 2010, pp. 3238 – 3240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2003.816733

T. Sebastian, V. Gangla, Analysis of induced EMF waveforms and torque ripple in a brushless permanent magnet machine, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 32 n. 1, January/February 1996, pp. 195 – 200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.485832

N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, Design techniques for reducing the cogging torque in surface-mounted PM motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38 n. 5, September 2002, pp. 1259 – 1265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.2002.802989

M. S. Islam, S. Mir, T. Sebastian, Issues in reducing the cogging torque of mass-produced permanent-magnet brushless DC motor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 40 n. 3, May/June 2004, pp. 813 – 820.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.2004.827469

P. Yedamale, Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Fundamentals (Microchip Technology, Inc., 2003).

R. Krishnan, S. Lee, PM brushless DC motor drive with a new power-converter topology, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 33 n. 4, July/August 1997, pp. 973 – 982.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.605739

C. H. Chen, M. Y. Cheng, A new cost effective sensorless commutation method for brushless DC motors without phase shift circuit and neutral voltage, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22 n. 2, March 2007, pp. 644 – 653.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2006.890006

S. A. KH. Mozaffari Niapour, S. Danyali, M. B. B. Sharifian, M. R. Feyzi, Brushless DC motor drives supplied by PV power system based on Z-source inverter and FL-IC MPPT, Energy Convers Management, vol. 52 n. 8-9, August 2011, pp. 3043 – 3059.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.04.016

H. G. Yee, C. S. Hong, J. Y. Yoo, H. G. Jang, Y. D. Bae, Y. S. Park, Sensorless drive for interior permanent magnet brushless DC motors, IEEE International Conference on Electric Machines & Drives ~ IEMDC 1997 ~, 18-21 May, 1997, Milwaukee, USA.

T. M. Jahns, R. C. Van Nocker, High-performance EHA controls magnet interior permanent magnet motor. IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 26 n. 3, May 1990, pp. 534 – 542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/7.106132

V. Hubik, M. Sveda, V. Singule, On the development of BLDC motor control run-up algorithms for aerospace application, IEEE 13th International Conference on Power Electronics and Motion Control ~ EPE-PEMC 2008 ~, 1-3 September, 2008, Poznan, Poland.

Kolahdooz, A., Shakeri, M., A new BLDC motor for propulsion application, (2010) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 5 (5), pp. 1872-1878.

B. Singh, Recent advances in permanent magnet brushless DC motors, Sadhana., vol. 22 n. 6, December 1990, pp. 837 – 853.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02745848

M. Naidu, T.W. Nehl, S. Gopalakrishnan, L. Wurth, Keeping cool while saving space and money: a semi-integrated, sensorless PM brushless drive for a 42-V automotive HVAC compressor, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, vol. 11, July/August 2005, pp. 20 – 28.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mia.2005.1458271

B. Sneyers, G. Maggetto, J. Van Eck, Inverter fed permanent magnet motor for road electric traction, IEEE International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ~ ICEMS 1992 ~, , 1992.

J. Shao, D. Nolan, M. Teissier, D. Swanson, A novel microcontroller-based sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive for automotive fuel pumps, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39 n. 6, November/December 2003, pp. 1734 – 1740.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.2003.818973

M. Bonfe, M. Bergo, A brushless motor drive with sensorless control for commercial vehicle hydraulic pumps, IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics ~ ISIE 2008 ~, 30 June -2 July, 2008, Cambridge, England.

Q. Jiang, Chao Bi, R. Huang, A new phase-delay-free method to detect back EMF zero-crossing points for sensorless control of spindle motors, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 41 n. 7, July 2005, pp. 2287 – 2294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2005.851841

W. J. Lee, S. K. Sul, A new starting method of BLDC motors without position sensor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 42 n. 6, November/December 2006, pp. 1532 – 1538.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tia.2006.882668

Y. S. Lai, F. S. Shyu, Y. H. Chang, Novel pulse-width modulation technique with loss reduction for small power brushless DC motor drives, IEEE 37th Annual Meeting on Industry Applications ~ IAS.2002 ~, 13-18 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, USA.

Y. S. Lai, F. S. Shyu, Y. H. Chang, Novel loss reduction pulse width modulation technique for brushless dc motor drives fed by MOSFET inverter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19 n. 6, November 2005, pp. 1646 – 1652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2004.836626

I. Takahashi, T. Koganezawa, G. Su, K. Oyama, A super high speed PM motor drive system by a quasi-current source inverter, IEEE Annual Meeting on Industry Applications Society ~ IAS.1993 ~, 2-8 October, 1993, Toronto, Canada.

K. L. Butler, M. Ehsani, P. Kamath, A matlab-based modelling and simulation package for electric and hybrid electric vehicle design. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 48 n. 6, November 1999, pp. 1770 – 1778.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/25.806769

G. Nanda, N. C. Kar, A survey and comparison of characteristics of motor drives used in electric vehicles, IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering ~ CCECE 2006 ~, May, 2006, Ottawa, Canada.

N. A. Rahim, W. P. Hew, M. Tadjuddin, Design of axial flux permanent magnet brushless DC motor for direct drive of electric vehicle, IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering ~ CCECE 2006 ~, May, 2006, Ottawa, Canada.

S. Onoda, A. Emadi, PSIM-based modelling of automotive power systems: conventional, electric, and hybrid electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 53 n. 2, March 2004, pp. 390 – 400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvt.2004.823500

R. C. Becerra, M. Ehsani, T. M. Jahns, Four-quadrant brushless ECM drive with integrated current regulation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28 n. 4, July/August 1992, pp. 833 – 841.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.148449

J. Larminie, J. Lowry, Electric Vehicle Technology Explained (John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 2003).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0470090707


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Please send any questions about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2017 Praise Worthy Prize